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The Root and Root Canal Morphology of the Human Mandibular First Premolar: A Literature Review

Published:February 28, 2007DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joen.2006.12.004

      Abstract

      The purpose of this study was to undertake a comprehensive literature review of the root and root canal morphology of the mandibular first premolar. Published studies citing the anatomy and morphology of mandibular premolars report data for over 6,700 teeth. These studies were divided into anatomical studies reporting number of roots, number of canals, and apical morphology. Variations because of sex and ethnic background have also been reported, along with case reports of anomalies.
      Approximately 98% of the teeth in these studies were single-rooted. The incidence of two roots was 1.8%. Three roots when reported were found in 0.2% of the teeth studied. Four roots were rare and were found in less than 0.1% of the teeth studied.
      Studies of the internal canal morphology revealed that a single canal was present in 75.8% of the teeth. Two or more canals were found in 24.2% of the teeth studied. A single apical foramen was found in 78.9% of the teeth, whereas 21.1% had two or more apical foramina.
      The role of genetics and racial variation may result in differences of incidence of root number and canal number in human populations. The dental literature is not unique in studying ethnicity and sex variations. Higher incidences of teeth with additional canals and roots have been reported in Chinese, Australian, and sub-Sahara African populations. Physical anthropology studies seem to show the lowest incidence in Western Eurasian, Japanese and American Arctic populations.
      The root and root canal morphology of this tooth can be complex and requires careful evaluation prior to root canal therapy.

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