Advertisement

Comparison of Organic Tissue Dissolution Capacities of Sodium Hypochlorite and Chlorine Dioxide

      Abstract

      The organic tissue dissolution properties of irrigating solutions are important for the success of endodontic treatment. Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) has been recently proposed as an irrigation solution in endodontics. The organic tissue dissolution property of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) is well-known and extensively investigated, but apparently no data have been published on tissue-dissolving properties of ClO2. The aim of this in vitro study was to compare organic tissue dissolution capacity of NaOCl and ClO2. In this study, 5.25% NaOCl, 13.8% ClO2, and, as a control, isotonic saline solutions (0.9% NaCl) were used. Thirty bovine pulp specimens were previously weighed and immersed for 20 minutes in each test solution (changing the solution every 2 minutes). The pulp specimens were then blotted dry and weighed again. The percentage of weight loss was calculated and statistically analyzed by using one-way analysis of variance and post hoc Tukey honestly significant difference tests. Saline solution did not dissolve the organic tissue. Both 5.25% NaOCl and 13.8% ClO2 dissolved the tissue pieces more effectively than saline control (P < .05). No statistically significant difference was found between the tissue-dissolving properties of 5.25% NaOCl and those of 13.8% ClO2 (P > .05). Within the limitations of this in vitro study, it was concluded that ClO2 and NaOCl are equally efficient for dissolving organic tissue.

      Key Words

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Journal of Endodontics
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Peters O.A.
        • Laib A.
        • Göhring T.N.
        • Barbakow F.
        Changes in root canal geometry after preparation assessed by high-resolution computed tomography.
        J Endod. 2001; 27: 1-6
        • Moorer W.R.
        • Wesselink P.R.
        Factors promoting the tissue dissolving capability of sodium hypochlorite.
        Int Endod J. 1982; 15: 187-196
        • Qing Y.
        • Akita Y.
        • Kawano S.
        • Kawazu S.
        • Yoshida T.
        • Sekine I.
        Cleaning efficacy and dentin micro-hardness after root canal irrigation with a strong acid electrolytic water.
        J Endod. 2006; 32: 1102-1106
        • Hand R.E.
        • Smith M.L.
        • Harrison J.W.
        Analysis of the effect of dilution on the necrotic tissue dissolution property of sodium hypochlorite.
        J Endod. 1978; 4: 60-64
        • Arias-Moliz M.T.
        • Ferrer-Luque C.M.
        • Espigares-García M.
        • Baca P.
        Enterococcus faecalis biofilms eradication by root canal irrigants.
        J Endod. 2009; 35: 711-714
        • Christensen C.E.
        • McNeal S.F.
        • Eleazer P.
        Effect of lowering the pH of sodium hypochlorite on dissolving tissue in vitro.
        J Endod. 2008; 34: 449-452
        • Sassone L.M.
        • Fidel R.A.
        • Murad C.F.
        • Fidel S.R.
        • Hirata Jr., R.
        Antimicrobial activity of sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine by two different tests.
        Aust Endod J. 2008; 34: 19-24
        • Sabala C.L.
        • Powell S.E.
        Sodium hypochlorite injection into periapical tissues.
        J Endod. 1989; 15: 490-492
        • Becking A.G.
        Complications in the use of sodium hypochlorite during endodontic treatment.
        Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1991; 72: 346-348
        • Gatot A.
        • Arbelle J.
        • Leiberman A.
        • Yanai-Inbar I.
        Effects of sodium hypochlorite on soft tissue after its inadvertent injection beyond the root apex.
        J Endod. 1991; 17: 573-574
        • Eddy R.S.
        • Joyce A.P.
        • Roberts S.
        • Buxton T.B.
        • Liewehr F.
        An in vitro evaluation of the antibacterial efficacy of chlorine dioxide on E. faecalis in bovine incisors.
        J Endod. 2005; 31: 672-675
      1. Alliger H. Overall view of ClO2. Frontier Pharmaceutical, Inc, 2001. Available at: http://www.grandcircuitinc.com/Howard%20Alliger%20-%20An%20Overall%20View%20Cl02.pdf. Accessed August 31, 2001.

        • Oliver S.P.
        • Lewis M.J.
        • Ingle T.L.
        • Gillespie B.E.
        • Matthews K.R.
        Prevention of bovine mastitis by a premilking teat disinfectant containing chlorous acid and chlorine dioxide.
        J Dairy Sci. 1993; 76: 287-292
        • Frascella J.
        • Gilbert R.D.
        • Fernandez P.
        • Hendler J.
        Efficacy of a chlorine dioxide-containing mouthrinse in oral malodor.
        Compend Contin Educ Dent. 2000; 21: 241-244
        • Wirthlin M.R.
        • Marshall Jr., G.W.
        Evaluation of ultrasonic scaling unit waterline contamination after use of chlorine dioxide mouthrinse lavage.
        J Periodontol. 2001; 72: 401-410
        • Kreske A.C.
        • Ryu J.H.
        • Beuchat L.R.
        Evaluation of chlorine, chlorine dioxide, and a peroxyacetic acid-based sanitizer for effectiveness in killing Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis spores in suspensions, on the surface of stainless steel, and on apples.
        J Food Prot. 2006; 69: 1892-1903
        • Porteous N.B.
        • Partida M.N.
        The effect of frequent clinical use of dental unit waterlines on contamination.
        N Y State Dent J. 2009; 75: 20-24
      2. EPA 2002c. Chlorine dioxide. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs. April 2002.

        • Barnhart B.D.
        • Chuang A.
        • Lucca J.J.
        • Roberts S.
        • Liewehr F.
        • Joyce A.P.
        An in vitro evaluation of the cytotoxicity of various endodontic irrigants on human gingival fibroblasts.
        J Endod. 2005; 31: 613-615
        • Nishikiori R.
        • Nomura Y.
        • Sawajiri M.
        • Masuki K.
        • Hirata I.
        • Okazaki M.
        Influence of chlorine dioxide on cell death and cell cycle of human gingival fibroblasts.
        J Dent. 2008; 36: 993-998
        • Sabeti M.
        • Simon J.H.
        • Nowzari H.
        • Slots J.
        CMV and Epstein-Barr virus active infection in periapical lesions of teeth with intact crowns.
        J Endod. 2003; 29: 321-323
        • Zoni R.
        • Zanelli R.
        • Riboldi E.
        • Bigliardi L.
        • Sansebastiano G.
        Investigation on virucidal activity of chlorine dioxide: experimental data on feline calicivirus, HAV and Coxsackie B5.
        J Prev Med Hyg. 2007; 48: 91-95
        • Koskinen K.P.
        • Stenvall H.
        • Uitto V.J.
        Dissolution of bovine pulp tissue by endodontic solutions.
        Scand J Dent Res. 1980; 88: 406-411
        • Gordon T.M.
        • Damato D.
        • Christner P.
        Solvent effect of various dilutions of sodium hypochlorite on vital and necrotic tissue.
        J Endod. 1981; 7: 466-469
        • Morgan R.W.
        • Carnes Jr., D.L.
        • Montgomery S.
        The solvent effects of calcium hydroxide irrigating solution on bovine pulp tissue.
        J Endod. 1991; 17: 165-168
        • Beltz R.E.
        • Torabinejad M.
        • Pouresmail M.
        Quantitative analysis of the solubilizing action of MTAD, sodium hypochlorite, and EDTA on bovine pulp and dentin.
        J Endod. 2003; 29: 334-337
        • Johnson B.R.
        • Remeikis N.A.
        Effective shelf life of prepared sodium hypochlorite solution.
        J Endod. 1993; 19: 40-43
        • Hasselgren G.
        • Olsson B.
        • Cvek M.
        Effects of calcium hydroxide and sodium hypochlorite on the dissolution of necrotic porcine muscle tissue.
        J Endod. 1988; 14: 125-127
        • Abou-Rass M.
        • Oglesby S.W.
        The effects of temperature, concentration, and tissue type on the solvent ability of sodium hypochlorite.
        J Endod. 1981; 7: 376-377
        • Zehnder M.
        • Kosicki D.
        • Luder H.
        • Sener B.
        • Waltimo T.
        Tissue-dissolving capacity and antibacterial effect of buffered and unbuffered hypochlorite solutions.
        Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2002; 94: 756-762
        • Aggazzotti G.
        • Fantuzzi G.
        • Righi E.
        • Predieri G.
        Environmental and biological monitoring of chloroform in indoor swimming pools.
        J Chromatogr A. 1995; 710: 181-190
        • Lévesque B.
        • Ayotte P.
        • Tardif R.
        • et al.
        Cancer risk associated with household exposure to chloroform.
        J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2002; 65: 489-502
        • Hua G.
        • Reckhow D.A.
        Comparison of disinfection byproduct formation from chlorine and alternative disinfectants.
        Water Res. 2007; 41: 1667-1678