Canal and Isthmus Debridement Efficacy of the VPro EndoSafe Negative-pressure Irrigation Technique

Published:October 19, 2012DOI:



      This study compared canal and isthmus debridement efficacies between side-vented needle irrigation (SNI) and the VPro EndoSafe (VPro) negative-pressure device (Vista Dental, Racine, WI) in mesial roots of mandibular first molars with narrow isthmuses in a closed-canal design.


      Twenty teeth with narrow isthmuses were selected using micro–computed tomography scanning. Collagen solution was reconstituted with 1% NH4OH to simulate debris and injected into canals via vacuum. Canals were instrumented to size 40/.04. Final irrigation was performed with 17% EDTA and 6% NaOCl using SNI with a 30-G needle or the VPro system. Roots were demineralized, and Masson trichrome–stained sections were prepared at 1.2 to 3.2 mm from the anatomic apex for a total of 6 canal levels. Debris-filled areas within the canals and isthmuses were measured using ImageJ software (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD) and statistically analyzed using repeated-measures analysis.


      There was no significant difference between techniques and debridement efficacy among the 6 levels within the canal (P = .108). The debridement efficacy at 1.6 mm differed significantly from that at 3.2 mm. VPro had significantly more debris at isthmus levels 2.0 and 2.4 mm than SNI (P = .009). A significant difference was observed between the canal and the isthmus (P < .001). Neither VPro nor SNI removed debris completely from the apical third or isthmus.


      VPro EndoSafe did not differ significantly from SNI in the overall debridement efficacy in the apical third of mesial roots of mandibular first molars.

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