Advertisement

Evaluation of Root Canal Configuration of Mandibular Molars in a Brazilian Population by Using Cone-beam Computed Tomography: An In Vivo Study

      Abstract

      Introduction

      The aim of this study was to analyze and characterize root canal morphology of mandibular molars of the Brazilian population by using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT).

      Methods

      Patients who required CBCT radiographic examinations as part of their routine examination, diagnosis, and treatment planning were enrolled in the study. A total of 460 healthy, untreated, fully developed mandibular first and second molars were included (234 first molars and 226 second molars). The following observations were recorded: (1) number of roots and their morphology, (2) number of canals per root, (3) C-shaped canals, and (4) primary variations in the morphology of the root canal systems.

      Results

      First molars showed a higher prevalence of 2 canals in the mesial root and 1 in the distal root with 2 separate roots (74%). In the mandibular second molars, the presence of 2 separate roots with 2 canals in the mesial root and 1 canal in the distal root represented 54% of the total. In 32% of the cases, 2 separate roots with 1 canal each in the mesial and distal roots were presented. The incidence of C-shaped canals was 1.7% of first molars and 3.5% of second molars.

      Conclusions

      A higher prevalence of 2 separate roots with 2 canals in the mesial root and 1 canal in the distal root was observed in mandibular first and second molars (74% and 54%, respectively). Also, a lower incidence of C-shaped canals and 3-rooted teeth was observed in a Brazilian population. CBCT is a clinically useful tool for endodontic diagnosis and treatment.

      Key Words

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Journal of Endodontics
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Berkovitz B.K.
        • Holland G.R.
        • Muxham B.J.
        Tooth morphology.
        in: Berkovitz B.K. Oral Anatomy Histology and Embryology. Wolf, London1992: 24-43
        • Skidmore A.E.
        • Bjorndal A.M.
        Root canal morphology of the human mandibular first molar.
        Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1971; 32: 778-784
        • Gu L.
        • Wei X.
        • Ling J.
        • Huang X.
        A microcomputed tomographic study of canal isthmuses in the mesial root of mandibular first molars in a Chinese population.
        J Endod. 2009; 35: 353-356
        • de Pablo O.V.
        • Estevez R.
        • Peix Sanchez M.
        • et al.
        Root anatomy and canal configuration of the permanent mandibular first molar: a systematic review.
        J Endod. 2010; 36: 1919-1931
        • Song J.S.
        • Choi H.J.
        • Jung I.Y.
        • et al.
        The prevalence and morphologic classification of distolingual roots in the mandibular molars in a Korean population.
        J Endod. 2010; 36: 653-657
        • Chandra S.S.
        • Chandra S.
        • Shankar P.
        • Indira R.
        Prevalence of radix entomolaris in mandibular permanent first molars: a study in a South Indian population.
        Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2011; 112: e77-e82
        • Kim S.Y.
        • Yang S.E.
        Cone-beam computed tomography study of incidence of distolingual root and distance from distolingual canal to buccal cortical bone of mandibular first molars in a Korean population.
        J Endod. 2012; 38: 301-304
        • Vertucci F.J.
        Root canal morphology of mandibular premolars.
        J Am Dent Assoc. 1978; 97: 47-50
        • Alavi A.M.
        • Opasanon A.
        • Ng Y.L.
        • Gulabivala K.
        Root and canal morphology of Thai maxillary molars.
        Int Endod J. 2002; 35: 478-485
        • Awawdeh L.
        • Abdullah H.
        • Al-Qudah A.
        Root form and canal morphology of Jordanian maxillary first premolars.
        J Endod. 2008; 34: 956-961
        • Weine F.S.
        • Hayami S.
        • Hata G.
        • Toda T.
        Canal configuration of the mesiobuccal root of the maxillary first molar of a Japanese sub-population.
        Int Endod J. 1999; 32: 79-87
        • Pattanshetti N.
        • Gaidhane M.
        • Al Kandari A.M.
        Root and canal morphology of the mesiobuccal and distal roots of permanent first molars in a Kuwait population: a clinical study.
        Int Endod J. 2008; 41: 755-762
        • Patel S.
        • Dawood A.
        • Whaites E.
        • Pitt Ford T.
        New dimensions in endodontic imaging: part 1—conventional and alternative radiographic systems.
        Int Endod J. 2009; 42: 447-462
        • Naoum H.J.
        • Love R.M.
        • Chandler N.P.
        • Herbison P.
        Effect of X-ray beam angulation and intraradicular contrast medium on radiographic interpretation of lower first molar root canal anatomy.
        Int Endod J. 2003; 36: 12-19
        • Cotton T.P.
        • Geisler T.M.
        • Holden D.T.
        • et al.
        Endodontic applications of cone-beam volumetric tomography.
        J Endod. 2007; 33: 1121-1132
        • Durack C.
        • Patel S.
        Cone beam computed tomography in endodontics.
        Braz Dent J. 2012; 23: 179-191
        • Zhang R.
        • Wang H.
        • Tian Y.Y.
        • et al.
        Use of cone-beam computed tomography to evaluate root and canal morphology of mandibular molars in Chinese individuals.
        Int Endod J. 2011; 44: 990-999
        • Neelakantan P.
        • Subbarao C.
        • Subbarao C.V.
        Comparative evaluation of modified canal staining and clearing technique, cone-beam computed tomography, peripheral quantitative computed tomography, spiral computed tomography, and plain and contrast medium-enhanced digital radiography in studying root canal morphology.
        J Endod. 2010; 36: 1547-1551
        • Vertucci F.J.
        Root canal anatomy of the human permanent teeth.
        Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1984; 58: 589-599
        • Gulabivala K.
        • Aung T.H.
        • Alavi A.
        • Ng Y.L.
        Root and canal morphology of Burmese mandibular molars.
        Int Endod J. 2001; 34: 359-370
        • Gulabivala K.
        • Opasanon A.
        • Ng Y.L.
        • Alavi A.
        Root and canal morphology of Thai mandibular molars.
        Int Endod J. 2002; 35: 56-62
        • Walker R.T.
        Root form and canal anatomy of mandibular first molars in a southern Chinese population.
        Endod Dent Traumatol. 1988; 4: 19-22
        • Neelakantan P.
        • Subbarao C.
        • Subbarao C.V.
        • Ravindranath M.
        Root and canal morphology of mandibular second molars in an Indian population.
        J Endod. 2010; 36: 1319-1322
        • Loh H.S.
        Incidence and features of three-rooted permanent mandibular molars.
        Aust Dent J. 1990; 35: 434-437
        • Tratman E.K.
        Three-rooted lower molars in man and their racial distribution.
        Br Dent J. 1938; 64: 264-274
        • Yang Z.P.
        • Yang S.F.
        • Lin Y.C.
        • et al.
        C-shaped root canals in mandibular second molars in a Chinese population.
        Endod Dent Traumatol. 1988; 4: 160-163
        • Haddad G.Y.
        • Nehme W.B.
        • Ounsi H.F.
        Diagnosis, classification, and frequency of C-shaped canals in mandibular second molars in the Lebanese population.
        J Endod. 1999; 25: 268-271