Advertisement

Root Canal Morphology of South Asian Indian Mandibular Premolar Teeth

  • Shishir Singh
    Correspondence
    Address requests for reprints to Dr Shishir Singh, Terna Dental College, Sector 22, Nerul, Navi Mumbai 400706, Maharashtra, India.
    Affiliations
    Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Government Dental College and Hospital, St George Hospital Compound, Mumbai, India
    Search for articles by this author
  • Mansing Pawar
    Affiliations
    Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Government Dental College and Hospital, St George Hospital Compound, Mumbai, India
    Search for articles by this author

      Abstract

      Introduction

      The purpose of this study was to study the root canal morphology of South Asian Indian mandibular premolars using a tooth clearing technique.

      Methods

      Two hundred mandibular premolar teeth were collected from different dental schools and clinics in India. After pulp tissue removal and root canal staining with Indian ink, the specimens were decalcified with 5% nitric acid, dehydrated in ethyl alcohol, and subsequently cleared in methyl salicylate.

      Results

      Of the 200 mandibular premolars, 100 were first premolars and 100 were second premolars. Of the first premolars, 94% had a single root, whereas 6% were 2 rooted. Seventy-six percent had a single canal, 22% had 2 canals, and 2% had 3 canals. Eighty-two percent had a single apical foramen, 16% had 2 foramens, and 2% teeth had 3 apical foramens. Eighty percent of teeth had type I, 6% had type II, 10% had type IV, 2% had type V, and 2% teeth had type IX root canal anatomy. Of the 100 second premolars, 92% had a single root, whereas 8% teeth were 2 rooted and fused. Fifty-eight percent of teeth had a single canal, and 42% had two canals. Eighty-eight percent had a single apical foramen, and 12% had 2 foramens. Sixty-six percent had type I, 30% had type II, and 4% had type V root canal anatomy.

      Conclusions

      A high prevalence of 2 canals was noted in the first and second premolars. Also, 20% of first premolars and 34% of second premolars had a root canal anatomy other than type I.

      Key Words

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Journal of Endodontics
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Vertucci F.J.
        Root canal morphology and its relationship to endodontic procedures.
        Endod Topics. 2005; 10: 3-29
        • Gulabivala K.
        • Aung T.H.
        • Alavi A.
        • et al.
        Root and canal morphology of Burmese mandibular molars.
        Int Endod J. 2001; 34: 359-370
        • Gulabivala K.
        • Opasanon A.
        • Ng Y.L.
        • et al.
        Root and canal morphology of Thai mandibular molars.
        Int Endod J. 2002; 35: 56-62
        • Alavi A.M.
        • Opasanon A.
        • Ng Y.L.
        • et al.
        Root and canal morphology of Thai maxillary molars.
        Int Endod J. 2002; 35: 478-485
        • Ahmed H.A.
        • Abu-bakr N.H.
        • Yahia N.A.
        • et al.
        Root and canal morphology of permanent mandibular molars in a Sudanese population.
        Int Endod J. 2007; 40: 766-771
        • Rwenyonyi C.M.
        • Kutesa A.M.
        • Muwazi L.M.
        • et al.
        Root and canal morphology of maxillary first and second permanent molar teeth in a Ugandan population.
        Int Endod J. 2007; 40: 679-683
        • Awawdeh L.
        • Abdullah H.
        • Al-Qudah A.
        Root form and canal morphology of Jordanian maxillary first premolars.
        J Endod. 2008; 34: 956-961
        • Al-Qudah A.A.
        • Awawdeh L.A.
        Root canal morphology of mandibular incisors in a Jordanian population.
        Int Endod J. 2006; 39: 873-877
        • Wasti F.
        • Shearer A.C.
        • Wilson N.H.F.
        Root canal systems of the mandibular and maxillary first permanent molar teeth of South Asian Pakistanis.
        Int Endod J. 2001; 34: 263-266
        • Pattanshetti N.
        • Gaidhane M.
        • Al Kandari A.M.
        Root and canal morphology of the mesiobuccal and distal roots of permanent first molars in a Kuwait population—a clinical study.
        Int Endod J. 2008; 41: 755-762
        • Lu T.Y.
        • Yang S.F.
        • Pai S.F.
        Complicated root canal morphology of mandibular first premolar in a Chinese population using the cross section method.
        J Endod. 2006; 32: 932-936
        • Pineda F.
        • Kuttler Y.
        Mesiodistal and buccolingual roentgenographic investigation of 7275 root canals.
        Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1972; 33: 101-110
        • Green D.
        Double canals in single roots.
        Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1973; 35: 689-696
        • Zillich R.
        • Dowson J.
        Root canal morphology of mandibular first and second premolars.
        Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1973; 36: 738-742
        • Vertucci F.J.
        Root canal anatomy of the human permanent teeth.
        Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1984; 58: 589-599
        • Trope M.
        • Elfenbein L.
        • Tronstad L.
        Mandibular premolars with more than one root canal in different race groups.
        J Endod. 1986; 12: 342-345
        • Walker R.T.
        Root canal anatomy of mandibular first premolars in a southern Chinese population.
        Endod Dent Traumatol. 1988; 4: 226-228
        • Rahimi S.
        • Shahi S.
        • Yavari H.R.
        • et al.
        Root canal configurations of mandibular first and second premolars in an Iranian population.
        J Dent Res Dent Clin Dent Prospects. 2007; 1: 59-64
        • Yu X.
        • Gua B.
        • Li K.
        • et al.
        Cone beam computed tomography study of root and canal morphology of mandibular premolars in a western Chinese population.
        BMC Med Imaging. 2012; 12: 18
        • Park J.
        • Kim N.
        • Park S.
        • et al.
        Evaluation of root anatomy of permanent mandibular premolars and molars in a Korean population with cone-beam computed tomography.
        Eur J Dent. 2013; 7: 94-101
        • Okumara T.
        Anatomy of the root canals.
        J Am Dent Assoc. 1927; 14: 632-636
        • Robertson D.
        • Leeb J.
        • McKee M.
        • et al.
        A clearing technique for the study of root canal system.
        J Endod. 1980; 6: 421-424
        • Robertson D.
        • Leeb J.
        The evaluation of a transparent tooth model system for the evaluation of endodontically filled teeth.
        J Endod. 1982; 8: 317-321
        • Omer O.E.
        • Al Shalabi R.M.
        • Jennings M.
        • et al.
        A comparison between clearing and radiographictechniques in the study of the root-canal anatomyof maxillary first and second molars.
        Int Endod J. 2004; 37: 291-296
        • Wu D.M.
        • WU Y.N.
        • Guo W.
        • Sameer S.
        Accuracy of direct digital radiography in the study of the root canal type.
        Dentomaxillofac Radiol. 2006; 35: 263-265
        • Neelakantan P.
        • Subbarao C.
        • Subbarao C.V.
        Comparative evaluation of modified canal staining and clearing technique, cone-beam computed tomography, and plain and contrast medium-enhanced digital radiography in studying root canal morphology.
        J Endod. 2010; 36: 1547-1551
        • Lee K.W.
        • Kim Y.
        • Perinpanayagam H.
        • et al.
        Comparison of alternative image reformatting techniques in mico-computed tomography and tooth clearing for detailed canal morphology.
        J Endod. 2014; 40: 417-422