Clinical Research| Volume 40, ISSUE 9, P1309-1314, September 2014

A Study of the Root Canal Morphology of Mandibular Anterior Teeth Using Cone-beam Computed Tomography in a Chinese Subpopulation



      The purpose of this study was to investigate the root canal configuration of the mandibular anterior teeth using cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) imaging in a Chinese subpopulation.


      A total of 3,871 CBCT images of mandibular anterior teeth were collected from 648 patients who accepted CBCT projection as a preoperative assessment for implants or orthodontic treatment. The following items were recorded and evaluated: tooth position, root number, canal number, root canal type, the distance between the anatomic apex and the point at which the canal divided into 2 for mandibular anterior teeth with 2 root canals (excluding canines with 2 roots), and the distance between the 2 root canal orifices. The Fisher exact test was used to analyze the correlation between the number of root canals and tooth position.


      All of the incisors in this study had 1 root, and 1.32% of the canines had 2 roots. The prevalence of 2 root canals in the lateral incisors (354, 27.36%) was higher than that in the central incisors (202, 15.71%) (P < .05) and the canines (81, 6.27%) (P < .05).


      There is a high prevalence of 2 root canals in the mandibular anterior teeth of the studied Chinese subpopulation. This study provides detailed information about the root canal morphology of mandibular anterior teeth in a Chinese subpopulation.

      Key Words

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


      Subscribe to Journal of Endodontics
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Sommer R.F.
        • Ostrander F.D.
        • Crowley M.
        Clinical Endodontics.
        2nd ed. WB Saunders, Philadelphia, PA1965: 269-271
        • Rankine Wilson R.W.
        • Henry P.
        The bifurcated root canal in lower anterior teeth.
        J Am Dent Assoc. 1965; 70: 1162-1165
        • Madeira M.C.
        • Hetem S.
        Incidence of bifurcations in mandibular incisors.
        Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1973; 36: 589-591
        • Vertucci F.J.
        Root canal anatomy of the mandibular anterior teeth.
        J Am Dent Assoc. 1974; 89: 369-371
        • Benjamin K.A.
        • Dowson J.
        Incidence of two root canals in human mandibular incisor teeth.
        Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1974; 38: 122-126
        • Liu J.
        • Luo J.
        • Dou L.
        • et al.
        CBCT study of root and canal morphology of permanent mandibular incisors in a Chinese population.
        Acta Odontol Scand. 2014; 72: 26-30
        • Kartal N.
        • Yanikoglu F.C.
        Root canal morphology of mandibular incisors.
        J Endod. 1992; 18: 562-564
        • Miyashita M.
        • Kasahara E.
        • Yasuda E.
        • et al.
        Root canal system of the mandibular incisor.
        J Endod. 1997; 23: 479-484
        • Sert S.
        • Aslanalp V.
        • Tanalp J.
        Investigation of the root canal configurations of mandibular permanent teeth in the Turkish population.
        Int Endod J. 2004; 37: 494-499
        • Rahimi S.
        • Milani A.S.
        • Shahi S.
        • et al.
        Prevalence of two root canals in human mandibular anterior teeth in an Iranian population.
        Indian J Dent Res. 2013; 24: 234-236
        • Caliskan M.K.
        • Pehlivan Y.
        • Sepetcioglu F.
        • et al.
        Root canal morphology of human permanent teeth in a Turkish population.
        J Endod. 1995; 21: 200-204
        • Al-Qudah A.A.
        • Awawdeh L.A.
        Root canal morphology of mandibular incisors in a Jordanian population.
        Int Endod J. 2006; 39: 873-877
        • Vertucci F.J.
        Root canal anatomy of the human permanent teeth.
        Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1984; 58: 589-599
        • Kulid J.C.
        • Peters D.D.
        Incidence and configuration of canal systems in the mesiobuccal root of maxillary first and second molars.
        J Endod. 1990; 16: 311-317
        • Plotino G.
        • Grande N.M.
        • Pecci R.
        • et al.
        Three-dimensional imaging using microcomputed tomography for studying tooth macromorphology.
        J Am Dent Assoc. 2006; 137: 1555-1561
        • Zhang R.
        • Yang H.
        • Yu X.
        • et al.
        Use of CBCT to identify the morphology of maxillary permanent molar teeth in a Chinese subpopulation.
        Int Endod J. 2011; 44: 162-169
        • Zhang R.
        • Wang H.
        • Tian Y.Y.
        • et al.
        Use of cone-beam computed tomography to evaluate root and canal morphology of mandibular molars in Chinese individuals.
        Int Endod J. 2011; 44: 990-999
        • Kim S.
        Endodontic application of cone-beam computed tomography in South Korea.
        J Endod. 2012; 38: 153-157
        • Neelakantan P.
        • Subbarao C.
        • Subbarao C.V.
        Comparative evaluation of modified canal staining and clearing technique, cone-beam computed tomography, peripheral quantitative computed tomography, spiral computed tomography, and plain and contrast medium-enhanced digital radiography in studying root canal morphology.
        J Endod. 2010; 36: 1547-1551
        • Paes da Silva Ramos Fernandes L.M.
        • Rice D.
        • Ordinola-Zapata R.
        • et al.
        Detection of various anatomic patterns of root canals in mandibular incisors using digital periapical radiography, 3 cone-beam computed tomographic scanners, and micro-computed tomographic imaging.
        J Endod. 2014; 40: 42-45