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The Root and Root Canal Morphology of the Human Mandibular Second Premolar: A Literature Review

      Abstract

      The objective was to review thoroughly the literature of the root and root canal morphology of the human mandibular second premolar and compare the results with the mandibular first premolar. Published studies cite the anatomy and morphology of the mandibular second premolar tooth for more than 7700 teeth. These studies were divided into anatomic studies reporting the number of roots, number of canals, and apical anatomy. Differences caused by gender and ethnicity have also been reported. Individual case reports of anomalies were included to demonstrate the extreme range of variation. Almost all of the teeth in the anatomic studies were single-rooted (99.6%). The incidence of 2 roots (0.3%) and 3 roots (0.1%) was extremely rare. Anatomic studies of the internal canal morphology found that a single canal was present in 91.0% of the teeth. A single apical foramen was found in 91.8% of the teeth. The incidence of more than 1 root (0.4%), more than 1 canal system (9.9%), and more than 1 foramen (8.2%) is lower than that of the mandibular first premolar tooth (2.0%, 24.2%, and 21.1%, respectively). However, the root and root canal morphology of the mandibular second premolar can be extremely complex and requires careful assessment.

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