Basic Research| Volume 40, ISSUE 11, P1820-1823, November 2014

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Evaluation of Effectiveness of Various Irrigating Solutions on Removal of Calcium Hydroxide Mixed with 2% Chlorhexidine Gel and Detection of Orange-brown Precipitate after Removal

Published:September 05, 2014DOI:



      The aims of the present study were to evaluate the effect of various irrigating solutions on the removal of calcium hydroxide mixed with 2% chlorhexidine gel from an artificial groove created in a root canal and the generation of orange-brown precipitate in the remaining calcium hydroxide mixed with 2% chlorhexidine gel after irrigation with the various irrigating solutions.


      The root canals of 48 mandibular premolars were prepared using ProTaper Universal Rotary instruments (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) up to size F4. The roots were split longitudinally, and a standardized groove was prepared in the apical part of 1 segment. The root halves were reassembled, and calcium hydroxide mixed with 2% chlorhexidine gel medicament was placed into the grooves. The roots were randomly divided into 4 experimental groups specified by the irrigation solution used: 1% NaOCl, 17% EDTA, 7% maleic acid, and 10% citric acid (n = 12). The amount of remaining medicament was evaluated under a stereomicroscope using a 4-grade scoring system. After irrigation, the specimens were also evaluated for the presence/absence of orange-brown precipitate. The effects of the different irrigation solutions on medicament removal were statistically evaluated using the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests with Bonferroni correction at a 95% confidence level (P = .0083).


      Solutions of 7% maleic acid and 10% citric acid were superior to solutions of 1% NaOCl and 17% EDTA in removing calcium hydroxide mixed with 2% chlorhexidine gel (P < .0083). There were no significant differences among the other groups (P > .0083). Orange-brown precipitate was observed in all specimens of the NaOCl group but in no specimens in the other groups.


      Irrigation solutions of 7% maleic acid and 10% citric acid were more effective in the removal of calcium hydroxide mixed with 2% chlorhexidine gel than those of 1% NaOCl and 17% EDTA. Orange-brown precipitate was found in all specimens of the NaOCl-irrigated groups. However, the precipitate was not observed in specimens in the groups irrigated with 17% EDTA, 7% maleic acid, and 10% citric acid.

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