Advertisement

Age-related Changes in the Alkaline Phosphatase Activity of Healthy and Inflamed Human Dental Pulp

Published:November 18, 2015DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joen.2015.10.003

      Highlights

      • We aimed to observe the mineralization ability of dental pulp depending on inflammation and age.
      • Inflammation and aging significantly affects the alkaline phosphatase activity.
      • In aging individuals, increased severity of inflammation may trigger calcification events.

      Abstract

      Introduction

      Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) plays an important role in inducing mineralization events in the dental pulp. This study investigated and compared the ALP levels in healthy and inflamed pulp in young and old human pulp.

      Methods

      Tissue samples were collected from young (<30 years) and old (>60 years) donors. In both age groups, healthy human pulp (n = 18) were collected from extracted wisdom teeth. For reversible and irreversible pulpitis, pulp samples (n = 18 each) were obtained during endodontic treatment. ALP activity was assessed by spectrophotometry and immunhistochemistry.

      Results

      Regardless of age, reversible pulpitis group samples showed a slight elevation in ALP activity compared with normal healthy pulp. In elderly patients, ALP expression with irreversible pulpitis was significantly higher than those with a healthy pulp (P < .05).

      Conclusions

      In the hyperemic state, both the young and old pulp shows a slight increase in ALP activity, whereas in irreversible pulpitis, only the old pulp shows significantly elevated ALP levels. Such an increase may trigger calcification events, which may eventually cause difficulties in endodontic treatment procedures in elderly individuals.

      Key Words

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Journal of Endodontics
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Okabe T.
        • Sakamoto M.
        • Takeuchi H.
        • Matsushima K.
        Effects of pH on mineralization ability of human dental pulp cells.
        J Endod. 2006; 32: 198-201
        • Ma D.
        • Ma Z.
        • Zhang X.
        • et al.
        Effect of age and extrinsic microenvironment on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of rat dental pulp stem cells in vitro.
        J Endod. 2009; 35: 1546-1553
        • Mitsiadis T.A.
        • Feki A.
        • Papaccio G.
        • Catón J.
        Dental pulp stem cells, niches, and notch signaling in tooth injury.
        Adv Dent Res. 2011; 23: 275-279
        • Tranasi M.
        • Sberna M.T.
        • Zizzari V.
        • et al.
        Microarray evaluation of age-related changes in human dental pulp.
        J Endod. 2009; 35: 1211-1217
        • Quigley M.B.
        Functional and geriatric changes of the human pulp.
        Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1971; 32: 795-806
        • Chung H.Y.
        • Lee E.K.
        • Choi Y.J.
        • et al.
        Molecular inflammation as an underlying mechanism of the aging process and age-related diseases.
        J Dent Res. 2011; 90: 830-840
        • Morse D.R.
        Age-related changes of the dental pulp complex and their relationship to systemic aging.
        Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1991; 72: 721-745
        • Murray P.E.
        • Stanley H.R.
        • Matthews J.B.
        • et al.
        Age-related odontometric changes of human teeth.
        Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2002; 93: 474-482
        • Buchaille R.
        • Couble M.L.
        • Magloire H.
        • Bleicher F.
        Expression of the small leucine-rich proteoglycan osteoadherin/osteomodulin in human dental pulp and developing rat teeth.
        Bone. 2000; 27: 265-270
        • Yao K.L.
        • Todescan Jr., R.
        • Sodek J.
        Temporal changes in matrix protein synthesis and mRNA expression during mineralized tissue formation by adult rat bone marrow cells in culture.
        J Bone Miner Res. 1994; 9: 231-240
        • Pizauro J.M.
        • Ciancaglini P.
        • Leone F.A.
        Phosphotransferase activity associated with rat osseous plate alkaline phosphatase: a possible role in biomineralization.
        Int J Biochem. 1992; 24: 1391-1396
        • Tenorio D.
        • Germain J.P.
        • Hughes F.J.
        Histochemical studies of acid and alkaline phosphatases in rat tooth germs with undecalcified resin-embedded specimens.
        J Histochem Cytochem. 1992; 40: 1229-1233
        • Lee Y.H.
        • Kim G.E.
        • Cho H.J.
        • et al.
        Aging of in vitro pulp illustrates change of inflammation and dentinogenesis.
        J Endod. 2013; 39: 340-345
        • Goseki M.
        • Oida S.
        • Nifuji A.
        • Sasaki S.
        Properties of alkaline phosphate of the human dental pulp.
        J Dent Res. 1990; 69: 909-912
        • Inoue T.
        • Chen S.H.
        • Usuda J.
        • et al.
        Osteogenic activity of cells from dental pulp, periodontal ligament, bone marrow and muscle in vitro; an ultrasutructural study and alkaline-phosphatase activity.
        Bull Tokyo Dent Coll. 1992; 33: 7-12
        • Shiba H.
        • Nakanishi K.
        • Rashid F.
        • et al.
        Proliferative ability and alkaline phosphatase activity with in vivo cellular aging in human pulp cells.
        J Endod. 2003; 29: 9-11
        • Lamster I.B.
        The host response in gingival crevicular fluid: potential applications in periodontitis clinical trials.
        J Periodontol. 1992; 63: 1117-1123
        • Spoto G.
        • Fioroni M.
        • Rubini C.
        • et al.
        Alkaline phosphatase activity in normal and inflamed dental pulps.
        J Endod. 2001; 27: 180-182
        • Bradford M.M.
        A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding.
        Anal Biochem. 1976; 72: 248-254
        • Farac R.V.
        • Morgental R.D.
        • Lima R.K.
        • et al.
        Pulp sensibility test in elderly patients.
        Gerodontology. 2012; 29: 135-139
        • Newton C.W.
        • Patterson S.S.
        Geriatric endodontics.
        J Mass Dent Soc. 1981; 30: 93-95
        • Ketterl W.
        Age-induced changes in the teeth and their attachment apparatus.
        Int Dent J. 1983; 33: 262-271
        • Nitzan D.W.
        • Michaeli Y.
        • Weinreb M.
        • Azaz B.
        The effect of aging on tooth morphology: a study on impacted teeth.
        Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1986; 61: 54-60
        • Gurjala A.N.
        • Liu W.R.
        • Mogford J.E.
        • et al.
        Age-dependent response of primary human dermal fibroblasts to oxidative stress: cell survival, pro-survival kinases, and entrance into cellular senescence.
        Wound Repair Regen. 2005; 13: 565-575
        • Cooper P.R.
        • Takahashi Y.
        • Graham L.W.
        • et al.
        Inflammation-regeneration interplay in the dentine-pulp complex.
        J Dent. 2010; 38: 687-697
        • Goldberg M.
        • Farges J.C.
        • Lacerda-Pinheiro S.
        • et al.
        Inflammatory and immunological aspects of dental pulp repair.
        Pharmacol Res. 2008; 58: 137-147
        • Hahn C.L.
        • Liewehr F.R.
        Relationships between caries bacteria, host responses, and clinical signs and symptoms of pulpitis.
        J Endod. 2007; 33: 213-219
        • Smith A.J.
        • Cassidy N.
        • Perry H.
        • et al.
        Reactionary dentinogenesis.
        Int J Dev Biol. 1995; 39: 273-280
        • Shiba H.
        • Nakamura S.
        • Shirakawa M.
        • et al.
        Effects of basic fibroblast growth factor on proliferation, the expression of osteonectin (SPARC) and alkaline phosphatase, and calcification in cultures of human pulp cells.
        Dev Biol. 1995; 170: 457-466