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Bactericidal Effect of Strong Acid Electrolyzed Water against Flow Enterococcus faecalis Biofilms

  • Xiaogang Cheng
    Affiliations
    State Key Laboratory of Military Stomatology and National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases and Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, Department of Operative Dentistry and Endodontics, School of Stomatology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Shaanxi, People's Republic of China

    Biomedical Sciences Department, Texas A&M University Baylor College of Dentistry, Dallas, Texas
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  • Yu Tian
    Affiliations
    State Key Laboratory of Military Stomatology and National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases and Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, Department of Operative Dentistry and Endodontics, School of Stomatology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Shaanxi, People's Republic of China
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  • Chunmiao Zhao
    Affiliations
    State Key Laboratory of Military Stomatology and National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases and Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, Department of Operative Dentistry and Endodontics, School of Stomatology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Shaanxi, People's Republic of China

    Department of Operative Dentistry and Endodontics, Baoji Stomatology, Baoji, People's Republic of China
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  • Tiejun Qu
    Affiliations
    State Key Laboratory of Military Stomatology and National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases and Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, Department of Operative Dentistry and Endodontics, School of Stomatology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Shaanxi, People's Republic of China
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  • Chi Ma
    Affiliations
    Biomedical Sciences Department, Texas A&M University Baylor College of Dentistry, Dallas, Texas
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  • Xiaohua Liu
    Correspondence
    Address requests for reprints to Xiaohua Liu, Biomedical Sciences Department, Texas A&M University Baylor College of Dentistry, 3302 Gaston Avenue, Dallas, TX 75246.
    Affiliations
    Biomedical Sciences Department, Texas A&M University Baylor College of Dentistry, Dallas, Texas
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  • Qing Yu
    Correspondence
    Qing Yu, State Key Laboratory of Military Stomatology and National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases and Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, Department of Operative Dentistry and Endodontics, School of Stomatology, The Fourth Military Medical University, 145 West Chang-le Road, Xi'an 710032, PR China.
    Affiliations
    State Key Laboratory of Military Stomatology and National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases and Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, Department of Operative Dentistry and Endodontics, School of Stomatology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Shaanxi, People's Republic of China
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      Highlights

      • Both flow and static Enterococcus faecalis biofilms were developed.
      • The bactericidal effect of strong acid electrolyzed water (SAEW) on E. faecalis biofilms was tested.
      • SAEW showed a bactericidal effect similar to that of 5.25% NaOCl on E. faecalis biofilms.
      • SAEW showed the potential to be a root canal irrigant for root canal disinfection.

      Abstract

      Introduction

      This study evaluated the bactericidal effect of strong acid electrolyzed water (SAEW) against flow Enterococcus faecalis biofilm and its potential application as a root canal irrigant.

      Methods

      Flow E. faecalis biofilms were generated under a constant shear flow in a microfluidic system. For comparison, static E. faecalis biofilms were generated under a static condition on coverslip surfaces. Both the flow and static E. faecalis biofilms were treated with SAEW. Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl, 5.25%) and normal saline (0.9%) were included as the controls. Bacterial reductions were evaluated using confocal laser scanning microscopy and the cell count method. Morphological changes of bacterial cells were observed using scanning electron microscopy.

      Results

      The confocal laser scanning microscopic and cell count results showed that SAEW had a bactericidal effect similar to that of 5.25% NaOCl against both the flow and static E. faecalis biofilms. The scanning electron microscopic results showed that smooth, consecutive, and bright bacteria surfaces became rough, shrunken, and even lysed after treated with SAEW, similar to those in the NaOCl group.

      Conclusions

      SAEW had an effective bactericidal effect against both the flow and static E. faecalis biofilms, and it might be qualified as a root canal irrigant for effective root canal disinfection.

      Key Words

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