- •Antibiotic nanofibers led to significant biofilm death.
- •Antibiotic nanofibers are a more cell-friendly disinfection strategy than triple antibiotic paste (TAP).
- •Dental pulp stem cell proliferation was higher (day 7) on fiber-treated dentin compared with TAP.
Root canal disinfection and the establishment of an intracanal microenvironment conducive to the proliferation/differentiation of stem cells play a significant role in regenerative endodontics. This study was designed to (1) investigate the antimicrobial efficacy of triple antibiotic–containing nanofibers against a dual-species biofilm and (2) evaluate the ability of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) to adhere to and proliferate on dentin upon nanofiber exposure.
Seven-day-old dual-species biofilm established on dentin specimens was exposed for 3 days to the following: saline (control), antibiotic-free nanofibers (control), and triple antibiotic–containing nanofibers or a saturated triple antibiotic paste (TAP) solution (50 mg/mL in phosphate buffer solution). Bacterial viability was assessed using the LIVE/DEAD assay (Molecular Probes, Inc, Eugene, OR) and confocal laser scanning microscopy. For cytocompatibility studies, dentin specimens after nanofiber or TAP (1 g/mL in phosphate buffer solution) exposure were evaluated for cell adhesion and spreading by actin-phalloidin staining. DPSC proliferation was assessed on days 1, 3, and 7. Statistics were performed, and significance was set at the 5% level.
Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed significant bacterial death upon antibiotic-containing nanofiber exposure, differing significantly (P < .05) from antibiotic-free fibers and the control (saline). DPSCs showed enhanced adhesion/spreading on dentin specimens treated with antibiotic-containing nanofibers when compared with its TAP counterparts. The DPSC proliferation rate was similar on days 1 and 3 in antibiotic-free nanofibers, triple antibiotic–containing nanofibers, and TAP-treated dentin. Proliferation was higher (9-fold) on dentin treated with antibiotic-containing nanofibers on day 7 compared with TAP.
Triple antibiotic–containing polymer nanofibers led to significant bacterial death, whereas they did not affect DPSC attachment and proliferation on dentin.
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