Regenerative Endodontic Procedures Posttrauma: Immunohistologic Analysis of a Retrospective Series of Failed Cases

Published:March 01, 2019DOI:



      Regenerative endodontic procedures (REP) are a novel treatment modality to restore the function of necrotic pulp tissue via stimulation or transplantation of stem cells into the root canal. This study aimed to investigate the immunohistologic outcome of 3 extracted teeth because of sequelae of trauma and unsatisfactory REP outcomes.


      Three immature permanent maxillary central incisors of 3 female patients (6–9 years) were extracted 5.5–22 months after REP. Additionally, 1 sound permanent immature central maxillary incisor of 1 of the included patients was extracted for orthodontic reasons. The teeth were immunohistologically stained with Masson's trichrome, neurofilament (NF), pan cytokeratin, dentin sialophosphoprotein, and Gram+/-.


      The REP-teeth presented intracanalar vascularized connective/mineralized reparative tissue (RT), which was less organized than the pulp tissue of the sound tooth. Moderate to considerable calcification was observed below the Portland cement used during REP. In 1 case, the RT was NF+; in the 2 other cases, the periodontal ligament and apical granuloma/papilla were NF+. All teeth were Gram+/- negative; nevertheless, inflammatory cells were present in 2 cases. The pan cytokeratin and dentin sialophosphoprotein stainings were not specific enough for 2 cases.


      This immunohistologic study of failed REP cases resulted in bacteria-free intracanalar RT and biomaterial-induced calcification. Nevertheless, the presence of inflammatory cells revealed a persistent inflammation. Hence, the clinical and radiographic signs were decisive for tooth survival and multidisciplinary outcome determination.

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