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Prevalence of Periapical Abscesses in Patients with Hypertension: A Cross-sectional Study of a Large Hospital Population

Published:April 13, 2021DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joen.2021.04.006

      Abstract

      Introduction

      Hypertension is a common major systemic disease and 1 of the most significant causes of mortality worldwide. Persistent hypertension is 1 of the risk factors for stroke, heart attack, heart failure, and arterial aneurysm and is a leading cause of chronic kidney failure. Common medications used to treat hypertension include beta blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, and calcium channel blockers. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of periapical abscesses in patients with different types of hypertension conditions and to evaluate the effect of commonly used antihypertensive medications on the prevalence of periapical abscesses.

      Methods

      The integrated data of hospital patients were used. Data from the corresponding diagnosis codes for hypertensive conditions and periapical abscess were retrieved by searching the appropriate query in the database. The odds ratio (OR) of periapical abscesses, its association with hypertensive conditions, and the intake of 4 antihypertensive medications were calculated and analyzed statistically.

      Results

      The prevalence of periapical abscesses in patients with hypertensive conditions was 1.2% compared with 0.558% in the general patient population of the hospital. The OR for the prevalence of periapical lesions in patients with hypertension was 2.32. For primary hypertension, the OR was 2.02; for hypertensive heart disease, the OR was 2.68; for hypertensive chronic kidney disease, the OR was 2.1; for hypertensive heart and chronic kidney diseases, the OR was 4.16; for secondary hypertension, the OR was 4.16; and for hypertension crisis, the OR was 5.64. For patients treated with beta blockers, the OR was 2.58; for patients treated with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, the OR was 2.73; for patients treated with angiotensin II receptor blockers, the OR was 1.93; and for patients treated with calcium channel blockers, the OR was 2.79. The differences were statistically significant (P < .0001). The OR for the prevalence of periapical abscesses in patients treated with angiotensin II receptor blockers was significantly lower than that of patients treated with either beta blockers or calcium channel blockers (P < .00001).

      Conclusions

      Under the conditions of this study, it appears that the prevalence of perapical abscesses is significantly higher in hypertensive patients. The prevalence of periapical abscesses is higher in patients with secondary hypertension than in those with primary hypertension. Angiotensin II receptor blockers may significantly lower the prevalence of periapical abscesses in hypertensive patients.

      Key Words

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