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Identification of Culturable and Nonculturable Microorganisms, Lipopolysaccharides, and Lipoteichoic Acids From Root Canals of Teeth With Endodontic Failure

Published:April 18, 2021DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joen.2021.04.011

      Abstract

      Aim

      To elucidate the presence of apical periodontitis in the root canal of teeth with secondary/persistent infection, including composition of microbiota, levels of endotoxins and lipoteichoic acid (LTA), and clinical implications of these findings.

      Method

      Samples were collected from root canals of 50 patients who needed endodontic retreatment and had radiographic evidence of apical periodontitis. Microorganisms were identified by using the culture technique and biochemical tests. Nested–polymerase chain reaction (nested-PCR) was used to identify 17 species of specific bacteria. Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and LTAs were quantified by using, respectively, limulus amebocyte lysate and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay tests.

      Results

      Bacteria were detected in all samples by culture and molecular methods. A total of 154 gram-positive strains, of 188 strains isolated, were found in the root canals by culture. Enterococcus faecalis and Gemella morbillorum were the most prevalent species identified by the biochemical tests, whereas molecular analyses (nested-PCR) showed a high frequency of P. gingivalis, E. faecalis, and Fusobacterium nucleatum. LPS and LTA were detected in all samples, with mean values being 3.52 EU/mL and 597.83 pg/mL, respectively. Significant statistical correlations were found between levels of LTA and clinical features.

      Conclusion

      Despite the prevalence of gram-positives, the microbiota present in secondary/persistent infections showed a large variety of species. Within this diversity, associations were found between specific bacteria and clinical features. In addition, higher levels of LTA were statistically associated with larger periapical radiolucent areas, but no correlation between this feature and LPS was found.

      Key Words

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