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An Epigallocatechin-3-gallate Formulation Developed for Endodontic Use: A Physicochemical and Biological Evaluation

      Abstract

      Introduction

      Although epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) from green tea has been successfully used in the prevention and treatment of several infectious and immunoinflammatory diseases because of its proven anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antiresorptive role, its use as an intracanal dressing has not been proposed. The aim of this study was to develop a formulation based on EGCG for endodontic use by assessing its physicochemical and biological properties.

      Methods

      Initially, physicochemical characterization of EGCG was performed by ultraviolet-visible and fluorescence spectroscopy to evaluate if the properties were maintained in acidic pH and time (1–6, 24, and 27 hours). After that, biological studies evaluated the developed formulation of EGCG at different concentrations (1.25, 5, 10, and 20 mg/mL). The tissue compatibility with subcutaneous tissue of mice was evaluated by plasma leakage after 24 hours and the examination of macroscopic and microscopic features at 7, 21, and 63 days after the insertion of polyethylene tubes containing the formulations. The repair of experimentally induced periapical lesions in dog's teeth by radiographic and histopathologic analysis was also evaluated. The scores were statistically analyzed by the chi-square and Fisher exact test. Analysis of variance followed by the Tukey posttest were used for the quantitative analysis. The significance level was 5%.

      Results

      The physicochemical characterization performed under ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry showed that the EGCG properties remained unaltered in acid pH and function of time, keeping its wavelength to 274 nm. Macroscopic parameters evaluated at 7, 21, and 63 days showed that all concentrations presented no epithelial ulceration or presence of mild superficial tissue necrosis, edema, or vascularization with no significant difference in the control group. During all periods of microscopic examination, all groups presented the absence of abscess foci and edema and the presence of fibrous capsule and neovascularization. The presence of reparative tissue with a gentle presence of neutrophilic inflammatory cells was also observed for all groups, except for the calcium hydroxide paste group, which presented a more pronounced inflammation and tissue necrosis at days 7 and 21 (P < .001). At day 63, all groups presented an absence of inflammatory infiltrate and necrosis. The evaluation of dog teeth showed that treatment with the EGCG formulation provided a reduction of the periapical radiolucent area and allowed the repair of apical and periapical tissues (P > .05).

      Conclusions

      The developed formulation based on EGCG from green tea presented physicochemical stability and tissue compatibility and provided the repair of periapical lesions when used as an intracanal dressing.

      Key Words

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