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Perioperative Antiplatelet and Anticoagulant Management with Endodontic Microsurgical Techniques

      Abstract

      Introduction

      The purpose of this study was to review evidence-based recommendations for the safe perioperative management of patients undergoing endodontic microsurgery who are currently taking antiplatelet or anticoagulant medications. Using the PICO (Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome) format, the following scientific question was asked: In patients taking anticoagulant or antiplatelet agents, what is the available evidence in the management of endodontic microsurgery?

      Methods

      MEDLINE, Scopus, Cochrane Library, and ClinicalTrials.gov databases were searched to identify current recommendations regarding the management of antiplatelet and anticoagulant medications in the context of outpatient dental surgical procedures. Additionally, the authors hand searched the bibliographies of all relevant articles, the gray literature, and textbooks. Because of the lack of clinical studies and evidence on this subject, articles and guidelines from other organizations and association position statements were included.

      Results

      Because any minor surgery can become a major surgery, the treating doctor needs to best assess the risk of bleeding, especially if the surgery is anticipated to take longer than 45 minutes. Every patient should be stratified on a case-by-case basis. Consultation with the patient’s physician is highly recommended.

      Conclusions

      In order to maximize the effects of these medications (to prevent thrombosis) while minimizing the potential risks (procedural hemorrhage), clinicians should be aware of the best available evidence when considering continuation or discontinuation of antiplatelet and anticoagulant agents perioperatively for endodontic microsurgery. Ideally, a joint effort from an expert panel for microsurgery would be warranted.

      Key Words

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