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The Effect of Mechanical Vibration on Osteogenesis of Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells

  • Dongzi Chen
    Affiliations
    Microscope Center, Department of Conservative Dentistry and Oral Science Research Center, Yonsei University College of Dentistry, Seoul, Korea
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  • Sunil Kim
    Affiliations
    Microscope Center, Department of Conservative Dentistry and Oral Science Research Center, Yonsei University College of Dentistry, Seoul, Korea
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  • Sukjoon Lee
    Affiliations
    Oral Science Research Center, Yonsei University College of Dentistry, Seoul, Korea
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  • Jong-Min Lee
    Affiliations
    Division in Anatomy and Developmental Biology, Department of Oral Biology, Taste Research Center, Oral Science Research Center, BK21 FOUR Project, Yonsei University College of Dentistry, Seoul, Korea
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  • Yoon Jeong Choi
    Affiliations
    Department of Orthodontics, The Institute of Craniofacial Deformity, Yonsei University College of Dentistry, Seoul, Korea
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  • Su-Jung Shin
    Affiliations
    Department of Conservative Dentistry, Gangnam Severance Dental Hospital, Yonsei University College of Dentistry, Seoul, Korea
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  • Han-Sung Jung
    Correspondence
    Address requests for reprints to Dr Euiseong Kim, Microscope Center, Department of Conservative Dentistry and Oral Science Research Center, Yonsei University College of Dentistry, 50-1 Yonsei-Ro, Seodaemun-Gu, Seoul 03722, Korea, or Dr Han-Sung Jung, Division in Anatomy and Developmental Biology, Department of Oral Biology, Taste Research Center, Oral Science Research Center, BK21 FOUR Project, Yonsei University College of Dentistry, 50-1 Yonsei-Ro, Seodaemun-Gu, Seoul 03722, Korea.
    Affiliations
    Division in Anatomy and Developmental Biology, Department of Oral Biology, Taste Research Center, Oral Science Research Center, BK21 FOUR Project, Yonsei University College of Dentistry, Seoul, Korea
    Search for articles by this author
  • Euiseong Kim
    Correspondence
    Address requests for reprints to Dr Euiseong Kim, Microscope Center, Department of Conservative Dentistry and Oral Science Research Center, Yonsei University College of Dentistry, 50-1 Yonsei-Ro, Seodaemun-Gu, Seoul 03722, Korea, or Dr Han-Sung Jung, Division in Anatomy and Developmental Biology, Department of Oral Biology, Taste Research Center, Oral Science Research Center, BK21 FOUR Project, Yonsei University College of Dentistry, 50-1 Yonsei-Ro, Seodaemun-Gu, Seoul 03722, Korea.
    Affiliations
    Microscope Center, Department of Conservative Dentistry and Oral Science Research Center, Yonsei University College of Dentistry, Seoul, Korea

    Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Yonsei University College of Engineering, Seoul, Korea
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Published:September 04, 2021DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joen.2021.08.014

      Abstract

      Introduction

      Appropriate occlusal forces can prevent ankylosis after tooth replantation or transplantation. However, the “proper occlusal forces” on periodontal ligament (PDL) healing have not yet been defined due to insufficient in vitro studies and uncertain in vitro models. Herein, we presented a mechanical vibration device as an in vitro model to determine such favorable occlusal forces.

      Methods

      Human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs) were exposed to mechanical vibration force with 4 frequencies (30, 90, 150, and 210 rpm). Cell viability and the expression of osteogenic differentiation-related genes and proteins were tested in vitro. The calvarial transplantation experiment was performed to assess the bone formation ability of 150 rpm mechanical vibration stimulation (MVS).

      Results

      MVS at 150 and 210 rpm significantly reduced cell viability in the early stages. The 150-rpm MVS decreased osteogenic marker expression at the early time point (3 days) but had no harmful effects at the late time point (14 days). Furthermore, hPDLSC cell sheets treated with 150-rpm MVS had potential to decrease bone formation in rat calvarial defects serendipitously and facilitated functional PDL-like tissue formation.

      Conclusions

      We found that MVS at a frequency of 150 rpm could provide a strategy for a transient reduction in the osteogenic potential of hPDLSCs and promote PDL-like tissue formation. Thus, 150-rpm MVS could be used as a controllable proper occlusal force to prevent ankylosis and promote PDL healing after tooth replantation or transplantation.

      Key Words

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