Endocannabinoids Modulate Production of Osteoclastogenic Factors by Stem Cells of the Apical Papilla In Vitro

Published:September 25, 2022DOI:



      Many mediators are produced during pulp inflammation and necrosis, including endocannabinoids (ECbs), which might affect the function of stem cells of the apical papilla (SCAP), cells of paramount importance for root formation, and regenerative endodontic treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the production of osteoclastogenesis-related mediators by SCAP modulated by ECbs and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in vitro.


      SCAP were cultured and treated with ECb anandamide (AEA), 2-arachidonoylglycerol, or N-arachidonoylaminophenol. All groups were incubated in the presence of a vehicle or LPS and the antagonist of transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1, capsazepine. After 24 hours, the culture medium supernatants were collected for further quantification of tumor necrosis factor alpha, CCL2, macrophage colony-stimulating factor, osteoprotegerin, and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand.


      Small amounts of tumor necrosis factor alpha and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand were detected in SCAP supernatants, and none of the experimental conditions altered their production. A down-regulation in constitutive CCL2 production was observed in the AEA group compared with that in the LPS group. The production of macrophage colony-stimulating factor was significantly increased in all groups treated with AEA compared with the control and LPS-treated groups. Osteoprotegerin was significantly increased by AEA alone and by 2-arachidonoylglycerol and N-arachidonoylaminophenol in the presence of LPS and capsazepine.


      AEA modulates some of the osteoclastogenic factors produced by SCAP in a bone resorption protective fashion.

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