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Effects of Calcium Hydroxide Paste in Different Vehicles on Bacterial Reduction during Treatment of Teeth with Apical Periodontitis

Published:October 25, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joen.2022.10.008

      Abstract

      Introduction

      This clinical study evaluated the antibacterial effects of calcium hydroxide associated with different vehicles during the treatment of infected teeth with apical periodontitis.

      Methods

      Bacteriologic samples were taken from 90 necrotic root canals of teeth with apical periodontitis before (S1) and after preparation with a rotary nickel-titanium instrument system and 2.5% sodium hypochlorite irrigation (S2). The teeth were distributed in 3 groups according to the intracanal medication used, which consisted of a calcium hydroxide paste in glycerin, camphorated paramonochlorophenol/glycerin (CHPG), or 2% chlorhexidine for 1 week, and then another sample was taken (S3). The frequency of bacteria-positive cases and the reduction of bacterial counts were evaluated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction.

      Results

      Substantial intracanal bacterial reduction was observed after preparation in the 3 groups (P < .001). After calcium hydroxide paste in glycerin medication, the number of bacteria-positive cases decreased from 20/29 (69%) to 17/29 (59%); however, the mean bacterial counts increased 8.4% from S2 to S3. Medication with CHPG reduced the number of bacteria-positive cases from 17/29 (59%) to 15/29 (52%), with a significant mean S2–S3 reduction of 71% (P < .05). In the chlorhexidine group, the number of bacteria-positive cases decreased from 21/30 (70%) to 17/30 (57%) after medication, with a mean S2–S3 reduction of 55%, which, however, was not statistically significant (P > .05). Intergroup comparisons showed no significant differences (P > .05).

      Conclusion

      Comparison between the 3 calcium hydroxide pastes showed no significant differences in antibacterial effectiveness in the main root canal. However, only the CHPG paste showed a significant reduction in bacterial counts when postpreparation and postmedication samples were compared.

      Key Words

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