Advertisement

Endodontic Microbial Communities in Apical Periodontitis

Published:December 13, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joen.2022.11.015

      Abstract

      Introduction

      Apical periodontitis (AP) represents an inflammatory condition of peri-radicular tissues due to invasion and colonization of bacteria in the root canals. Primary apical periodontitis (PAP) is associated with untreated necrotic root canal and can be efficiently treated with endodontic treatment to remove bacteria. Persistent/secondary apical periodontitis (SAP) is a perpetual periapical lesion due to unsuccessfully treated root canals after an initial apparent healing of the tooth. The aim of the study was evaluating the microbial communities associated with root canals using Nanopore sequencing.

      Methods

      Seventeen samples from the root canals of 15 patients with AP were Polymerase Chain Reaction-amplified for 16s ribosomal DNA gene and sequenced. Information regarding the presence or absence of AP symptoms, PAP and SAP, and periapical index of patients were recorded.

      Results

      Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria were the most abundant phyla detected and Phocaeicola, Pseudomonas, Rothia, and Prevotella were the most prominent genera. In samples of patients with AP symptoms, the most frequent detected genera were Cutibacterium, Lactobacillus, Pseudomonas, Dialister, Prevotella, and Staphylococcus. In PAP samples, the most represented genera were Cutibacterium, Lactobacillus, Pseudomonas, and Prevotella, whilst in SAP cases were Cutibacterium, Prevotella, Atopobium, Capnocytophaga, Fusobacterium, Pseudomonas, Solobacterium, and Streptococcus.

      Conclusions

      The results provide additional information on the microbiota of root-canals. These data evidence the complexity of the microbiota and the relationship with many clinical and endodontic conditions. Future studies must evaluate these conditions and identify their role in inducing bone damage and local and systemic disease, aiming to better elucidate the relationship between microbes and endodontic pathologies.

      Key Words

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Journal of Endodontics
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Shin J.M.
        • Luo T.
        • Lee K.H.
        • et al.
        Deciphering endodontic microbial communities by next-generation sequencing.
        J Endod. 2018; 44: 1080-1087
        • Ricucci D.
        • Siqueira José F.
        Biofilms and apical periodontitis: study of prevalence and association with clinical and histopathologic findings.
        J Endod. 2010; 36: 1277-1288
        • Manoil D.
        • Al-Manei K.
        • Belibasakis G.N.
        A systematic review of the root canal microbiota associated with apical periodontitis: lessons from next-generation sequencing.
        Proteomics Clin Appl. 2020; 14: 1900060
        • Gutmann James L.
        • Baumgartner Craig J.
        • Gluskin Alan H.
        • et al.
        Identify and define all diagnostic terms for periapical/periradicular health and disease states.
        J Endod. 2009; 35: 1658-1674
        • Alessio B.
        • Francesca L.
        • Chiara P.
        • et al.
        Symptomatic and asymptomatic apical periodontitis associated with red complex bacteria: clinical and microbiological evaluation.
        Odontology. 2013; 101: 84-88
        • Lin L.M.
        • Domenico R.
        • Lin J.
        • Rosenberg P.A.
        Nonsurgical root canal therapy of large cyst-like inflammatory periapical lesions and inflammatory apical cysts.
        J Endod. 2009; 35: 607-615
        • Foschi F.
        • Izard J.
        • Sasaki H.
        • et al.
        Treponema Denticola in disseminating endodontic infections.
        J Dent Res. 2006; 85: 761-765
        • Fouad Ashraf F.
        Endodontic microbiology and pathobiology.
        Dent Clin North Am. 2017; 61: 1-15
        • Siqueira J.F.
        • Ras I.N.
        Uncultivated phylotypes and newly named species associated with primary and persistent endodontic infections.
        J Clin Microbiol. 2005; 43: 3314-3319
        • Paster Bruce J.
        • Boches Susan K.
        • Galvin Jamie L.
        • et al.
        Bacterial diversity in human subgingival plaque.
        J Bacteriol. 2001; 183: 3770-3783
        • Krishnan K.
        • Chen T.
        • Paster B.J.
        A practical guide to the oral microbiome and its relation to health and disease.
        Oral Dis. 2017; 23: 276-286
        • Siqueira J.F.
        • Rôças I.N.
        Diversity of endodontic microbiota revisited.
        J Dent Res. 2009; 88: 969-981
        • Kralik P.
        • Ricchi M.
        A basic guide to real time PCR in microbial diagnostics: definitions, parameters, and everything.
        Front Microbiol. 2017; 8https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2017.00108
        • de Brito Luciana C.N.
        • Doolittle-Hall J.
        • Lee C.-T.
        • et al.
        The apical root canal system microbial communities determined by next-generation sequencing.
        Sci Rep. 2020; 10: 10932
        • Buonavoglia A.
        • Lanave G.
        • Camero M.
        • et al.
        Next-Generation Sequencing Analysis of Root Canal Microbiota Associated with a Severe Endodontic-Periodontal Lesion.
        Diagnostics. 2021; 11: 1461
        • Sánchez-Sanhueza G.
        • Bello-Toledo H.
        • González-Rocha G.
        • et al.
        Metagenomic study of bacterial microbiota in persistent endodontic infections using next-generation sequencing.
        Int Endod J. 2018; 51: 1336-1348
        • Korona-Glowniak I.
        • Piatek D.
        • Fornal E.
        • et al.
        Patterns of oral microbiota in patients with apical periodontitis.
        J Clin Med. 2021; 10: 2707
        • Papapanou P.N.
        • Sanz M.
        • Buduneli N.
        • et al.
        Periodontitis: consensus report of workgroup 2 of the 2017 world workshop on the classification of periodontal and peri-implant diseases and conditions.
        J Clin Periodontol. 2018; 45: S162-S170
        • Campbell K.
        Oral microbiome findings challenge dentistry dogma.
        Nature. 2021; https://doi.org/10.1038/d41586-021-02920-w
        • Vertucci Frank J.
        Root canal anatomy of the human permanent teeth.
        Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1984; 58: 589-599
        • Orstavik D.
        • Kerekes K.
        • Eriksen H.M.
        The periapical index: a scoring system for radiographic assessment of apical periodontitis.
        Dental Traumatol. 1986; 2: 20-34
        • Alghofaily M.
        • Tordik P.
        • Romberg E.
        • et al.
        Healing of Apical Periodontitis after Nonsurgical Root Canal Treatment: The Role of Statin Intake.
        J Endod. 2018; 44: 1355-1360
        • Zanini M.
        • Decerle N.
        • Hennequin M.
        • Cousson P.-Y.
        Revisiting Orstavik's PAI score to produce a reliable and reproducible assessment of the outcomes of endodontic treatments in routine practice.
        Eur J Dental Education. 2021; 25: 291-298
        • Lillo A.
        • Ashley F.P.
        • Palmer R.M.
        • et al.
        Novel subgingival bacterial phylotypes detected using multiple universal polymerase chain reaction primer sets.
        Oral Microbiol Immunol. 2006; 21: 61-68
        • Sievert C.
        1st ed. Interactive Web-Based Data Visualization with R, plotly. 9781138331457. Chapman & Hall, 2019
        • Ondov Brian D.
        • Bergman Nicholas H.
        • Phillippy Adam M.
        Interactive metagenomic visualization in a Web browser.
        BMC Bioinformatics. 2011; 12: 385
        • Hou Y.
        • Wang L.
        • Zhang L.
        • et al.
        Potential relationship between clinical symptoms and the root canal microbiomes of root filled teeth based on the next-generation sequencing.
        Int Endod J. 2022; 55: 18-29
        • Bouillaguet S.
        • Manoil D.
        • Girard M.
        • et al.
        Root microbiota in primary and secondary apical periodontitis.
        Front Microbiol. 2018; 9: 2374
        • Tzanetakis G.N.
        • Azcarate-Peril M.A.
        • Zachaki S.
        • et al.
        Comparison of bacterial community composition of primary and persistent endodontic infections using pyrosequencing.
        J Endod. 2015; 41: 1226-1233
        • Hong B.-Y.
        • Lee T.-K.
        • Lim S.-M.
        • et al.
        Microbial analysis in primary and persistent endodontic infections by using pyrosequencing.
        J Endod. 2013; 39: 1136-1140
        • Keskin C.
        • Demiryürek E.Ö.
        • Onuk E.E.
        Pyrosequencing analysis of cryogenically ground samples from primary and secondary/persistent endodontic infections.
        J Endod. 2017; 43: 1309-1316
        • Větrovský T.
        • Baldrian P.
        The variability of the 16S rRNA gene in bacterial genomes and its consequences for bacterial community analyses.
        PLoS One. 2013; 8: e57923
        • Ravi R.K.
        • Walton K.
        • Khosroheidari M.
        MiSeq: a next generation sequencing platform for genomic analysis.
        Methods Mol Biol. 2018; 1706: 223-232
        • Kuczynski J.
        • Lauber Christian L.
        • Walters W.A.
        • et al.
        Experimental and analytical tools for studying the human microbiome.
        Nat Rev Genet. 2012; 13: 47-58
        • Leggett Richard M.
        • Alcon-Giner C.
        • Heavens D.
        • et al.
        Rapid MinION profiling of preterm microbiota and antimicrobial-resistant pathogens.
        Nat Microbiol. 2020; 5: 430-442
        • Shin H.
        • Lee E.
        • Shin J.
        • et al.
        Elucidation of the bacterial communities associated with the harmful microalgae Alexandrium tamarense and Cochlodinium polykrikoides using nanopore sequencing.
        Sci Rep. 2018; 8: 5323