Basic Research| Volume 49, ISSUE 3, P294-300, March 2023

Comparison of Static and Dynamic Navigation in Root End Resection Performed by Experienced and Inexperienced Operators: An In Vitro Study

  • Weilong Tang
    The State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology, Key Laboratory of Oral Biomedicine Ministry of Education, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China
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  • Han Jiang
    Address requests for reprints to Han Jiang, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, 237 Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430079, China.
    The State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology, Key Laboratory of Oral Biomedicine Ministry of Education, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China
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Published:December 14, 2022DOI:



      This study aimed to compare the effects of static navigation (SN), a dynamic navigation system (DNS), and the freehand (FH) technique in root end resection and the differences between these effects according to the level of experience of the operator.


      Maxillary models reconstructed with Mimics software (Materialise, Leuven, Belgium) were 3-dimensionally printed and divided according to the experimental technique (FH, SN, or DNS) and the operator (experienced or inexperienced). SN was designed using 3-matic Medical software (Materialise) and printed, and a surgical approach plan for DNS was established and performed using DCARER (Suzhou, China) software. The accuracy, efficiency, and safety of the resections were assayed.


      The length, angle, volume, and depth deviations of the root end resections were significantly lower in the SN and DNS group compared with the FH group. SN significantly improved the efficiency of both operators, whereas DNS only improved the efficiency of the inexperienced operator. No difference between the SN and DNS groups was found, except for the time required for the surgery. No mishaps occurred during surgery in the SN or DNS group. The number of mishaps with the FH technique when used by the inexperienced operator was significantly higher than that registered for the rest of the groups. No interaction effect between technique and operator experience level was detected.


      Regardless of operator experience, both SN and DNS could improve the accuracy and safety of root end resection. SN significantly improved the chairside efficiency of both operators, whereas DNS was more helpful for the inexperienced operator.

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