Basic Research|Articles in Press

Clinical Accuracy and Precision of 3 Multifrequency Electronic Apex Locators Assessed through Micro–Computed Tomographic Imaging

Published:February 25, 2023DOI:



      This study aimed to compare the in vivo accuracy and precision of 3 electronic apex locators (EALs) in determining the position of the major foramen using micro–computed tomographic (micro-CT) technology.


      After access preparation of 23 necrotic or vital teeth from 5 patients, canals were negotiated, and hand files were used to determine the position of the foramen with 3 EALs: Propex Pixi (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland), Woodpex III (Woodpecker Medical Instrument Co, Guilin, China), and Root ZX II (J Morita, Tokyo, Japan). After fixing the silicon stop to the file, teeth were extracted and scanned in a micro-CT device with and without the instrument inserted into the canal. Data sets were coregistered, and the accuracy and precision of the EALs were determined at a tolerance level of ±0.5 mm by measuring the distance from the tip of the instruments to a tangential line crossing the margins of the foramen. Statistical comparisons were performed using Friedman with post hoc related samples sign and Spearman tests (α = 5%).


      A significant difference was detected comparing the accuracy of Root ZX II (100%), Woodpex III (86.96%), and Propex Pixi (52.17%) (P < .05). There was a lack of significance in the relationship between the pulp status and the accuracy of the tested EALs (P > .05). Propex Pixi was significantly less precise than Root ZX II (P < .05), whereas no difference was found between Woodpex III and Root ZX II or Propex Pixi (P > .05).


      EALs presented similar precision, but Woodpex III and Root ZX II showed better accuracy to determine the position of the apical major foramen than Propex Pixi.

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