Regenerative Endodontics|Articles in Press

Bone Regeneration Effect of Nanochitosan with or without Temporally Controlled Release of Dexamethasone

Published:March 08, 2023DOI:



      Chitosan is a cationic biopolymer, and its modification as a nanoparticle as well as loading a corticosteroid on it may enhance its bone regenerative effect. The aim of this study was to investigate the bone regenerative effect of nanochitosan with or without dexamethasone.


      Under general anesthesia, 4 cavities were created in the calvarium of 18 rabbits and filled with nanochitosan, nanochitosan with a temporally controlled release of dexamethasone (nanochitosan + dexamethasone), an autograft, or left unfilled (control). The defects were then covered with a collagen membrane. The rabbits were randomly divided into 2 groups and were sacrificed at 6 or 12 weeks after surgery. The new bone type, osteogenesis pattern, foreign body reaction, and the type and severity of the inflammatory response were evaluated histologically. The amount of new bone was determined using histomorphometry and cone-beam computed tomographic imaging. One-way analysis of variance with repeated measures was performed to compare results between the groups at each interval. A t test and chi-square test were also conducted to analyze changes in variables between the 2 intervals.


      Nanochitosan and the combination of nanochitosan and dexamethasone significantly increased the combination of woven and lamellar bone (P = .007). No sample showed a foreign body reaction or any acute or severe inflammation. Chronic inflammation was significantly decreased in number (P = .002) and severity (P = .003) over time. There was no significant difference between the extent and pattern of osteogenesis among the 4 groups, as evaluated by histomorphometry and cone-beam computed tomographic imaging at each interval.


      Nanochitosan and nanochitosan + dexamethasone were comparable with the gold standard of autograft regarding the type and severity of inflammation as well as the level and pattern of osteogenesis; yet, they induced more woven and lamellar bone.

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