• Disclaimer
• Submission checklist
• Ethics in publishing
• Studies in humans and animals
• Declaration of interest
• Submission declaration and verification
• Use of inclusive language
• Reporting sex- and gender-based analyses
• Author contributions
• Changes to authorship
• Copyright
• Role of the funding source
• Open access
• Open access
• Submission
• Essential title page information
• Structured abstract
• Keywords
• Original Research Article Guidelines
• Other Article Types and Guidelines
• Artwork
• Tables
• References
• Video
• Supplementary material
• Research data
• Proofs
• Offprints

The Journal of Endodontics is owned by the American Association of Endodontists. Submitted manuscripts must pertain to endodontics and may be original research (eg, clinical trails, basic science related to the biological aspects of endodontics, basic science related to endodontic techniques, case reports, or review articles related to the scientific or applied aspects of endodontics). Clinical studies using CONSORT methods ( or systematic reviews using meta-analyses are particularly encouraged. Authors of potential review articles are encouraged to first contact the Editor during their preliminary development via e-mail at [email protected]. Manuscripts submitted for publication must be submitted solely to JOE. They must not be submitted for consideration elsewhere or be published elsewhere.


The statements, opinions, and advertisements in the Journal of Endodontics are solely those of the individual authors, contributors, editors, or advertisers, as indicated. Those statements, opinions, and advertisements do not affect any endorsement by the American Association of Endodontists or its agents, authors, contributors, editors, or advertisers, or the publisher. Unless otherwise specified, the American Association of Endodontists and the publisher disclaim any and all responsibility or liability for such material.

Submission checklist

You can use this list to carry out a final check of your submission before you send it to the journal for review. Please check the relevant section in this Guide for Authors for more details.

Ensure that the following items are present:

One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:
• E-mail address
• Full postal address

All necessary files have been uploaded:
• Include keywords
• All figures (include relevant captions)
• All tables (including titles, description, footnotes)
• Ensure all figure and table citations in the text match the files provided
• Indicate clearly if color should be used for any figures in print
Graphical Abstracts / Highlights files (where applicable)
Supplemental files (where applicable)

Further considerations
• Manuscript has been 'spell checked' and 'grammar checked'
• All references mentioned in the Reference List are cited in the text, and vice versa
• Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Internet)
• A competing interests statement is provided, even if the authors have no competing interests to declare
• Journal policies detailed in this guide have been reviewed
• Referee suggestions and contact details provided, based on journal requirements

For further information, visit our Support Center.

Ethics in publishing

Please see our information on Ethics in publishing.

Studies in humans and animals

If the work involves the use of human subjects, the author should ensure that the work described has been carried out in accordance with The Code of Ethics of the World Medical Association (Declaration of Helsinki) for experiments involving humans. The manuscript should be in line with the Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals and aim for the inclusion of representative human populations (sex, age and ethnicity) as per those recommendations. The terms sex and gender should be used correctly.

Authors should include a statement in the manuscript that informed consent was obtained for experimentation with human subjects. The privacy rights of human subjects must always be observed.

All animal experiments should comply with the ARRIVE guidelines and should be carried out in accordance with the U.K. Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act, 1986 and associated guidelines, EU Directive 2010/63/EU for animal experiments, or the National Research Council's Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals and the authors should clearly indicate in the manuscript that such guidelines have been followed. The sex of animals must be indicated, and where appropriate, the influence (or association) of sex on the results of the study.

Declaration of interest

All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential competing interests include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. Authors must disclose any interests in two places: 1. A summary declaration of interest statement in the title page file (if double anonymized) or the manuscript file (if single anonymized). If there are no interests to declare then please state this: 'Declarations of interest: none'. 2. Detailed disclosures as part of a separate Declaration of Interest form, which forms part of the journal's official records. It is important for potential interests to be declared in both places and that the information matches. More information.

Submission declaration and verification

Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract, a published lecture or academic thesis, see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' for more information), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder. To verify compliance, your article may be checked by Crossref Similarity Check and other originality or duplicate checking software.

Use of inclusive language

Inclusive language acknowledges diversity, conveys respect to all people, is sensitive to differences, and promotes equal opportunities. Content should make no assumptions about the beliefs or commitments of any reader; contain nothing which might imply that one individual is superior to another on the grounds of age, gender, race, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, disability or health condition; and use inclusive language throughout. Authors should ensure that writing is free from bias, stereotypes, slang, reference to dominant culture and/or cultural assumptions. We advise to seek gender neutrality by using plural nouns ("clinicians, patients/clients") as default/wherever possible to avoid using "he, she," or "he/she." We recommend avoiding the use of descriptors that refer to personal attributes such as age, gender, race, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, disability or health condition unless they are relevant and valid. When coding terminology is used, we recommend to avoid offensive or exclusionary terms such as "master", "slave", "blacklist" and "whitelist". We suggest using alternatives that are more appropriate and (self-) explanatory such as "primary", "secondary", "blocklist" and "allowlist". These guidelines are meant as a point of reference to help identify appropriate language but are by no means exhaustive or definitive.

Reporting sex- and gender-based analyses

Reporting guidance
For research involving or pertaining to humans, animals or eukaryotic cells, investigators should integrate sex and gender-based analyses (SGBA) into their research design according to funder/sponsor requirements and best practices within a field. Authors should address the sex and/or gender dimensions of their research in their article. In cases where they cannot, they should discuss this as a limitation to their research's generalizability. Importantly, authors should explicitly state what definitions of sex and/or gender they are applying to enhance the precision, rigor and reproducibility of their research and to avoid ambiguity or conflation of terms and the constructs to which they refer (see Definitions section below). Authors can refer to the Sex and Gender Equity in Research (SAGER) guidelines and the SAGER guidelines checklist. These offer systematic approaches to the use and editorial review of sex and gender information in study design, data analysis, outcome reporting and research interpretation - however, please note there is no single, universally agreed-upon set of guidelines for defining sex and gender.

Sex generally refers to a set of biological attributes that are associated with physical and physiological features (e.g., chromosomal genotype, hormonal levels, internal and external anatomy). A binary sex categorization (male/female) is usually designated at birth ("sex assigned at birth"), most often based solely on the visible external anatomy of a newborn. Gender generally refers to socially constructed roles, behaviors, and identities of women, men and gender-diverse people that occur in a historical and cultural context and may vary across societies and over time. Gender influences how people view themselves and each other, how they behave and interact and how power is distributed in society. Sex and gender are often incorrectly portrayed as binary (female/male or woman/man) and unchanging whereas these constructs actually exist along a spectrum and include additional sex categorizations and gender identities such as people who are intersex/have differences of sex development (DSD) or identify as non-binary. Moreover, the terms "sex" and "gender" can be ambiguous—thus it is important for authors to define the manner in which they are used. In addition to this definition guidance and the SAGER guidelines, the resources on this page offer further insight around sex and gender in research studies.

Author contributions

For transparency, we encourage authors to submit an author statement file outlining their individual contributions to the paper using the relevant CRediT roles: Conceptualization; Data curation; Formal analysis; Funding acquisition; Investigation; Methodology; Project administration; Resources; Software; Supervision; Validation; Visualization; Roles/Writing - original draft; Writing - review & editing. Authorship statements should be formatted with the names of authors first and CRediT role(s) following. More details and an example.

Changes to authorship

Authors are expected to consider carefully the list and order of authors before submitting their manuscript and provide the definitive list of authors at the time of the original submission. Any addition, deletion or rearrangement of author names in the authorship list should be made only before the manuscript has been accepted and only if approved by the journal Editor. To request such a change, the Editor must receive the following from the corresponding author: (a) the reason for the change in author list and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed.
Only in exceptional circumstances will the Editor consider the addition, deletion or rearrangement of authors after the manuscript has been accepted. While the Editor considers the request, publication of the manuscript will be suspended. If the manuscript has already been published in an online issue, any requests approved by the Editor will result in a corrigendum.

Reporting clinical trials

Randomized controlled trials should be presented according to the CONSORT guidelines. At manuscript submission, authors must provide the CONSORT checklist accompanied by a flow diagram that illustrates the progress of patients through the trial, including recruitment, enrollment, randomization, withdrawal and completion, and a detailed description of the randomization procedure. The CONSORT checklist and template flow diagram are available online.


Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (see more information on this). An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.

Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations. If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases.

For gold open access articles: Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'License Agreement' (more information). Permitted third party reuse of gold open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license.

Author rights
As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. More information.

Elsevier supports responsible sharing

Find out how you can share your research published in Elsevier journals.

Role of the funding source

You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement, it is recommended to state this.

Open access

The Journal of Endodontics supports Open Access. Following acceptance, authors have the option to make their article freely accessible for a fee of $3,000. Please see the following link to learn more about open access options:

Open access

Please visit our Open Access page for more information.

Language (usage and editing services)

Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's Author Services.


Our online submission system guides you stepwise through the process of entering your article details and uploading your files. The system converts your article files to a single PDF file used in the peer-review process. Editable files (e.g., Word, LaTeX) are required to typeset your article for final publication. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, is sent by e-mail.

Submit your article

Please submit your article via

General Points on Composition

Authors are strongly encouraged to analyze their final draft with both software (eg, spelling and grammar programs) and colleagues who have expertise in English grammar. References listed at the end of this section provide a more extensive review of rules of English grammar and guidelines for writing a scientific article. Always remember that clarity is the most important feature of scientific writing. Scientific articles must be clear and precise in their content and concise in their delivery because their purpose is to inform the reader. The Editor reserves the right to edit all manuscripts or to reject those manuscripts that lack clarity or precision or that have unacceptable grammar or syntax. The following list represents common errors in manuscripts submitted to the Journal of Endodontics:

a. The paragraph is the ideal unit of organization. Paragraphs typically start with an introductory sentence that is followed by sentences that describe additional detail or examples. The last sentence of the paragraph provides conclusions and forms a transition to the next paragraph. Common problems include one-sentence paragraphs, sentences that do not develop the theme of the paragraph (see also section “c,” below), or sentences with little to no transition within a paragraph.

b. Keep to the point. The subject of the sentence should support the subject of the paragraph For example, the introduction of authors’ names in a sentence changes the subject and lengthens the text. In a paragraph on sodium hypochlorite, the sentence, “In 1983, Langeland et al, reported that sodium hypochlorite acts as a lubricating factor during instrumentation and helps to flush debris from the root canals” can be edited to: “Sodium hypochlorite acts as a lubricant during instrumentation and as a vehicle for flushing the generated debris (Langeland et al, 1983).” In this example, the paragraph’s subject is sodium hypochlorite and sentences should focus on this subject.

c. Sentences are stronger when written in the active voice, that is, the subject performs the action. Passive sentences are identified by the use of passive verbs such as “was,” “were,” “could,” etc. For example: “Dexamethasone was found in this study to be a factor that was associated with reduced inflammation,” can be edited to: “Our results demonstrated that dexamethasone reduced inflammation.” Sentences written in a direct and active voice are generally more powerful and shorter than sentences written in the passive voice.

d. Reduce verbiage. Short sentences are easier to understand. The inclusion of unnecessary words is often associated with the use of a passive voice, a lack of focus, or run-on sentences. This is not to imply that all sentences need be short or even the same length. Indeed, variation in sentence structure and length often helps to maintain reader interest. However, make all words count. A more formal way of stating this point is that the use of subordinate clauses adds variety and information when constructing a paragraph. (This section was written deliberately with sentences of varying length to illustrate this point.)

e. Use parallel construction to express related ideas. For example, the sentence, “Formerly, endodontics was taught by hand instrumentation, while now rotary instrumentation is the common method,” can be edited to “Formerly, endodontics was taught using hand instrumentation; now it is commonly taught using rotary instrumentation.” The use of parallel construction in sentences simply means that similar ideas are expressed in similar ways, and this helps the reader recognize that the ideas are related.

f. Keep modifying phrases close to the word that they modify. This is a common problem in complex sentences that may confuse the reader. For example, the statement, “Accordingly, when conclusions are drawn from the results of this study, caution must be used,” can be edited to “Caution must be used when conclusions are drawn from the results of this study.”

g. To summarize these points, effective sentences are clear and precise, and often are short, simple and focused on one key point that supports the paragraph’s theme.

h. Authors should be aware that the JOE uses iThenticate, plagiarism detection software, to ensure originality and integrity of material published in the journal. The use of copied sentences, even when present within quotation marks, is highly discouraged. Instead, the information of the original research should be expressed by the new manuscript author’s own words, and a proper citation given at the end of the sentence. Plagiarism will not be tolerated and manuscripts will be rejected or papers withdrawn after publication based on unethical actions by the authors. In addition, authors may be sanctioned for future publication.

Use of word processing software

It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the word processor used. The text should be in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the word processor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier). Note that source files of figures, tables and text graphics will be required whether or not you embed your figures in the text. See also the section on Electronic artwork.
To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.

Essential title page information

Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.
Author names and affiliations. Please clearly indicate the given name(s) and family name(s) of each author and check that all names are accurately spelled. You can add your name between parentheses in your own script behind the English transliteration. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.
Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. This responsibility includes answering any future queries about Methodology and Materials. Ensure that the e-mail address is given and that contact details are kept up to date by the corresponding author.
Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.

Structured abstract

A structured abstract, by means of appropriate headings, should provide the context or background for the research and should state its purpose, basic procedures (selection of study subjects or laboratory animals, observational and analytical methods), main findings (giving specific effect sizes and their statistical significance, if possible), and principal conclusions. It should emphasize new and important aspects of the study or observations.

Abstract Headings

Introduction, Methods, Results, Conclusions


Immediately after the abstract, provide a maximum of 6 keywords, using American spelling and avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, 'and', 'of'). Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible. These keywords will be used for indexing purposes.


Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. List here those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc.).

The authors deny any conflicts of interest related to this study.

Original Research Article Guidelines

Title Page

The title describes the major emphasis of the paper. It must be as short as possible without loss of clarity. Avoid abbreviations in the title because this may lead to imprecise coding by electronic citation programs such as PubMed (eg, use sodium hypochlorite rather than NaOCl). The author list must conform to published standards on authorship (see authorship criteria in the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals at Include the manuscript title; the names and affiliations of all authors; and the name, affiliation, and full mailing address (including e-mail) of the corresponding author. This author will be responsible for proofreading page proofs and ordering reprints when applicable. Also highlight the contribution of each author in the cover letter.


The Abstract concisely describes the purpose of the study in 250 or fewer words. It must be organized into sections: Introduction, Methods, Results, and Conclusions. The hypothesis is described in the Abstract Introduction. The Abstract describes the new contributions made by this study. The Abstract word limitation and its wide distribution (eg, PubMed) make it challenging to write clearly. This section is written last by many authors. Write the abstract in past tense because the study has been completed. Provide 3-5 keywords.


The introduction briefly reviews the pertinent literature in order to identify the gap in knowledge that the study is intended to address and the limitations of previous studies in the area. Clearly describe the purpose of the study, the tested hypothesis, and its scope. Many successful manuscripts require no more than a few paragraphs to accomplish these goals; therefore, do not perform extensive literature review or discuss the results of the study in this section.

Materials and Methods

The Materials and Methods section is intended to permit other investigators to repeat your experiments. There are 4 components to this section: (1) detailed description of the materials used and their components, (2) experimental design, (3) procedures employed, and (4) statistical tests used to analyze the results. Most manuscripts should cite prior studies that used similar methods and succinctly describe the essential aspects used in the present study. A "methods figure" will be rejected unless the procedure is novel and requires an illustration for comprehension. If the method is novel, then you must carefully describe the method and include validation experiments. If the study used a commercial product, the manuscript must either state that you followed manufacturer’s protocol or specify any changes made to the protocol. If the study used an in vitro model to simulate a clinical outcome, describe either experiments made to validate the model or previous literature that proved the clinical relevance of the model. The statistical analysis section must describe which tests were used to analyze which dependent measures; P values must be specified. Additional details may include randomization scheme, stratification (if any), power analysis as a basis for sample size computation, dropouts from clinical trials, the effects of important confounding variables, and bivariate versus multivariate analysis.


Only experimental results are appropriate in this section; do not include methods, discussion, or conclusions. Include only those data that are critical for the study, as defined by the aim(s). Do not include all available data without justification; any repetitive findings will be rejected from publication. All Figures, Charts, and Tables must be cited in the text in numerical order and include a brief description of the major findings. Consider using Supplemental Figures, Tables, or Video clips that will be published online. Supplemental material often is used to provide additional information or control experiments that support the results section (eg, microarray data).


There are 2 general types of figures: type 1 includes photographs, radiographs, or micrographs; type 2 includes graphs. Type 1: Include only essential figures and use composite figures containing several panels of photographs, if possible. Each panel must be clearly identified with a letter (eg, A, B, C), and the parts must be defined in the figure legend. A figure that contains many panels counts as 1 figure. Type 2: Graphs (ie, line drawings including bar graphs) that plot a dependent measure (on the Y axis) as a function of an independent measure (usually plotted on the X axis). One example is a graph depicting pain scores over time. Use graphs when the overall trend of the results is more important than the exact numeric values of the results. A graph is a convenient way to report that an ibuprofen-treated group reported less pain than a placebo-treated group over the first 24 hours, but pain reported was the same for both groups over the next 96 hours. In this case, the trend of the results is the primary finding; the actual pain scores are not as critical as the relative differences between the NSAID and placebo groups.


Tables are appropriate when it is critical to present exact numeric values; however, not all results need be placed in either a table or figure. Instead of a simple table, the results could state that there was no inhibition of growth from 0.001%-0.03% NaOCl, and a 100% inhibition of growth from 0.03%-3% NaOCl (N=5/group). If the results are not significant, then it is probably not necessary to include the results in either a table or as a figure.


All authors must affirm that they have no financial affiliation (eg, employment, direct payment, stock holdings, retainers, consultantships, patent licensing arrangements, or honoraria), or involvement with any commercial organization with direct financial interest in the subject or materials discussed in this manuscript, nor have any such arrangements existed in the past 3 years. Disclose any potential conflict of interest. Append a paragraph to the manuscript that fully discloses any financial or other interest that poses a conflict. Disclose all sources and attribute all grants, contracts, or donations that funded the study. Specific wording: "The authors deny any conflicts of interest related to this study."


The reference style can be learned from reading past issues of JOE. References are numbered in order of citation. Please use superscripts at the end of a sentence or at the end of a clause that requires a literature citation. Original reports are limited to 35 references. There are no limits in the number of references for review articles.

Other Article Types and Guidelines

Manuscripts submitted to JOE that are not Original Articles must fall into one of the following categories. Abstract limit: 250 words. Note that word limits, listed by type, do not include figure legends or References. If you are not sure whether your manuscript falls within one of the categories listed or if you would like to request pre-approval to submit additional figures, contact the Editor at [email protected].

CONSORT Randomized Clinical Trial

Must strictly adhere to the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials—CONSORT—minimum guidelines for publication of randomized clinical trials ( Word limit: 3500. Headings: Abstract, Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, Acknowledgments. Maximum number of figures: 4. Maximum number of tables: 4.

Review Article

Either narrative articles or systemic reviews/meta-analyses. Case Report/Clinical Techniques articles, even when they include an extensive review of the literature, are categorized as Case Report/Clinical Techniques. Word limit: 3500. Headings: Abstract, Introduction, Discussion, Acknowledgments. Maximum number of figures: 4. Maximum number of tables: 4.

Clinical Research

Prospective or retrospective studies of patients or patient records, research on biopsies excluding the use of human teeth for technique studies. Word limit: 3500. Headings: Abstract, Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, Acknowledgments. Maximum number of figures: 4. Maximum number of tables: 4.

Basic Research—Biology

Animal or culture studies of biological research on physiology, development, stem cell differentiation, inflammation, or pathology. Primary focus is on biology. Word limit: 2500. Headings: Abstract, Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, Acknowledgments. Maximum number of figures: 4. Maximum number of tables: 4.

Basic Research—Technology

Focus primarily on research related to techniques and materials used, or on potential clinical use, in endodontics. Word limit: 2500. Headings: Abstract, Introduction, Material and Methods, Results, Discussion, Acknowledgments. Maximum number of figures: 3. Maximum number of tables: 3.

Case Report/Clinical Techniques

Reports of an unusual clinical case or use of a cutting edge technology in a clinical case. Word limit: 2500. Headings: Abstract, Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, Acknowledgments. Maximum number of figures: 4. Maximum number of tables: 4.

Formatting of funding sources

List funding sources in this standard way to facilitate compliance to funder's requirements:

Funding: This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health [grant numbers xxxx, yyyy]; the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, WA [grant number zzzz]; and the United States Institutes of Peace [grant number aaaa].

It is not necessary to include detailed descriptions on the program or type of grants and awards. When funding is from a block grant or other resources available to a university, college, or other research institution, submit the name of the institute or organization that provided the funding.

If no funding has been provided for the research, it is recommended to include the following sentence:

This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.


Follow internationally accepted rules and conventions: use the international system of units (SI). If other units are mentioned, please give their equivalent in SI.


Electronic artwork

General points
• Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
• Embed the used fonts if the application provides that option.
• Aim to use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times New Roman, Symbol, or use fonts that look similar.
• Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
• Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
• Provide captions to illustrations separately.
• Size the illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the published version.
• Submit each illustration as a separate file.
• Ensure that color images are accessible to all, including those with impaired color vision.

A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available.
You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) then please supply 'as is' in the native document format.
Regardless of the application used other than Microsoft Office, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'Save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings, embed all used fonts.
TIFF (or JPEG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones), keep to a minimum of 300 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black & white pixels) line drawings, keep to a minimum of 1000 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale), keep to a minimum of 500 dpi.
Please do not:
• Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); these typically have a low number of pixels and limited set of colors;
• Supply files that are too low in resolution;
• Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

Color artwork

Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF) or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color online (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) in addition to color reproduction in print. Further information on the preparation of electronic artwork.

Figure captions

Ensure that each illustration has a caption. Supply captions separately, not attached to the figure. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.


Please submit tables as editable text and not as images. Tables can be placed either next to the relevant text in the article, or on separate page(s) at the end. Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text and place any table notes below the table body. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in them do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article. Please avoid using vertical rules and shading in table cells.


Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not allowed in the reference list, but they may be mentioned in the text. Citation of a reference as "in press" implies that the item has been accepted for publication.

Reference links

Increased discoverability of research and high quality peer review are ensured by online links to the sources cited. In order to allow us to create links to abstracting and indexing services, such as Scopus, Crossref and PubMed, please ensure that data provided in the references are correct. Please note that incorrect surnames, journal/book titles, publication year and pagination may prevent link creation. When copying references, please be careful as they may already contain errors. Use of the DOI is highly encouraged.

A DOI is guaranteed never to change, so you can use it as a permanent link to any electronic article. An example of a citation using DOI for an article not yet in an issue is: VanDecar J.C., Russo R.M., James D.E., Ambeh W.B., Franke M. (2003). Aseismic continuation of the Lesser Antilles slab beneath northeastern Venezuela. Journal of Geophysical Research, Please note the format of such citations should be in the same style as all other references in the paper.

Web References

As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references are included in the reference list.

Data references

This journal encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by citing them in your text and including a data reference in your Reference List. Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier. Add [dataset] immediately before the reference so we can properly identify it as a data reference. The [dataset] identifier will not appear in your published article.

Preprint references

Where a preprint has subsequently become available as a peer-reviewed publication, the formal publication should be used as the reference. If there are preprints that are central to your work or that cover crucial developments in the topic, but are not yet formally published, these may be referenced. Preprints should be clearly marked as such, for example by including the word preprint, or the name of the preprint server, as part of the reference. The preprint DOI should also be provided.

References in a special issue

Please ensure that the words 'this issue' are added to any references in the list (and any citations in the text) to other articles in the same Special Issue.

Reference management software

Most Elsevier journals have their reference template available in many of the most popular reference management software products. These include all products that support Citation Style Language styles, such as Mendeley. Using citation plug-ins from these products, authors only need to select the appropriate journal template when preparing their article, after which citations and bibliographies will be automatically formatted in the journal's style. If no template is yet available for this journal, please follow the format of the sample references and citations as shown in this Guide. If you use reference management software, please ensure that you remove all field codes before submitting the electronic manuscript. More information on how to remove field codes from different reference management software.

Reference style

Text: Indicate references by Arabic numerals in parentheses, numbered in the order in which they appear in the text. List: Number the references in the list in the order in which they appear in the text. List 3 authors then et al.
Journal article:
1. Van der Geer J, Hanraads JAJ, Lupton RA. The art of writing a scientific article. J Sci Commun. 2010;163:51–59.
2. Strunk W Jr, White EB. The Elements of Style, 4th ed. New York: Longman; 2000.
Chapter in an edited book:
3. Mettam GR, Adams LB. How to prepare an electronic version of your article. In: Jones BS, Smith RZ, eds. Introduction to the Electronic Age. New York: E-Publishing; 2009:281–304.

Journal abbreviations source

Journal names are abbreviated according to Index medicus.


Elsevier accepts video material and animation sequences to support and enhance your scientific research. Authors who have video or animation files that they wish to submit with their article are strongly encouraged to include links to these within the body of the article. This can be done in the same way as a figure or table by referring to the video or animation content and noting in the body text where it should be placed. All submitted files should be properly labeled so that they directly relate to the video file's content. In order to ensure that your video or animation material is directly usable, please provide the file in one of our recommended file formats with a preferred maximum size of 150 MB per file, 1 GB in total. Video and animation files supplied will be published online in the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect. Please supply 'stills' with your files: you can choose any frame from the video or animation or make a separate image. These will be used instead of standard icons and will personalize the link to your video data. For more detailed instructions please visit our video instruction pages. Note: since video and animation cannot be embedded in the print version of the journal, please provide text for both the electronic and the print version for the portions of the article that refer to this content.

Supplementary material

Supplementary material such as applications, images and sound clips, can be published with your article to enhance it. Submitted supplementary items are published exactly as they are received (Excel or PowerPoint files will appear as such online). Please submit your material together with the article and supply a concise, descriptive caption for each supplementary file. If you wish to make changes to supplementary material during any stage of the process, please make sure to provide an updated file. Do not annotate any corrections on a previous version. Please switch off the 'Track Changes' option in Microsoft Office files as these will appear in the published version.

Research data

This journal encourages and enables you to share data that supports your research publication where appropriate, and enables you to interlink the data with your published articles. Research data refers to the results of observations or experimentation that validate research findings. To facilitate reproducibility and data reuse, this journal also encourages you to share your software, code, models, algorithms, protocols, methods and other useful materials related to the project.

Below are a number of ways in which you can associate data with your article or make a statement about the availability of your data when submitting your manuscript. If you are sharing data in one of these ways, you are encouraged to cite the data in your manuscript and reference list. Please refer to the "References" section for more information about data citation. For more information on depositing, sharing and using research data and other relevant research materials, visit the research data page.

Data linking

If you have made your research data available in a data repository, you can link your article directly to the dataset. Elsevier collaborates with a number of repositories to link articles on ScienceDirect with relevant repositories, giving readers access to underlying data that gives them a better understanding of the research described.

There are different ways to link your datasets to your article. When available, you can directly link your dataset to your article by providing the relevant information in the submission system. For more information, visit the database linking page.

For supported data repositories a repository banner will automatically appear next to your published article on ScienceDirect.

In addition, you can link to relevant data or entities through identifiers within the text of your manuscript, using the following format: Database: xxxx (e.g., TAIR: AT1G01020; CCDC: 734053; PDB: 1XFN).

Mendeley Data

This journal supports Mendeley Data, enabling you to deposit any research data (including raw and processed data, video, code, software, algorithms, protocols, and methods) associated with your manuscript in a free-to-use, open access repository. Before submitting your article, you can deposit the relevant datasets to Mendeley Data. Please include the DOI of the deposited dataset(s) in your main manuscript file. The datasets will be listed and directly accessible to readers next to your published article online.

For more information, visit the Mendeley Data for journals page.

Data statement

To foster transparency, we encourage you to state the availability of your data in your submission. This may be a requirement of your funding body or institution. If your data is unavailable to access or unsuitable to post, you will have the opportunity to indicate why during the submission process, for example by stating that the research data is confidential. The statement will appear with your published article on ScienceDirect. For more information, visit the Data Statement page.


One set of page proofs (as PDF files) will be sent by e-mail to the corresponding author (if we do not have an e-mail address then paper proofs will be sent by post) or, a link will be provided in the e-mail so that authors can download the files themselves. Elsevier now provides authors with PDF proofs which can be annotated; for this you will need to download Adobe Reader version 7 (or higher) available free from Instructions on how to annotate PDF files will accompany the proofs (also given online). The exact system requirements are given at the Adobe site:
If you do not wish to use the PDF annotations function, you may list the corrections (including replies to the Query Form) and return them to the Journal Manager at Elsevier in an e-mail. Please list your corrections quoting line number. If, for any reason, this is not possible, then mark the corrections and any other comments (including replies to the Query Form) on a printout of your proof and return by fax. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately – please let us have all your corrections within 48 hours. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication: please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility. Note that Elsevier may proceed with the publication of your article if no response is received.


The corresponding author will, at no cost, receive a customized Share Link providing 50 days free access to the final published version of the article on ScienceDirect. The Share Link can be used for sharing the article via any communication channel, including email and social media. For an extra charge, paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. Corresponding authors who have published their article gold open access do not receive a Share Link as their final published version of the article is available open access on ScienceDirect and can be shared through the article DOI link.

Visit the Elsevier Support Center to find the answers you need. Here you will find everything from Frequently Asked Questions to ways to get in touch.
You can also check the status of your submitted article or find out when your accepted article will be published.